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Collection I 034:

Carlos Montezuma, et al., papers on microfilm
Note: this prints out as 39 pages, plus the 105-page digital version
of the printed guide to the microfilm collection.

This guide describes the Center of Southwest Studies' user set of the microfilm collection of the papers of Carlos Montezuma, M.D., including the papers of Maria Keller Montezuma Moore and the papers of Joseph W. Latimer.  The Center owns one set of this microfilm publication, which is available for use in the Delaney Library at the Center.  This guide, and the PDF format guide to Scholarly Resources' printed guide to the collection, are made available here for the benefit of researchers and may not be used for any commercial purposes.

This microfilm was produced by Scholarly Resources, Inc. and is available for use at the Center and at other repositories around the U.S., and is available for purchase from Thomson Gale, Product #S1618, 9 rolls, at $130.00/roll.  The printed guide is included in the purchase, or may be purchased separately for $40.00.  An additional 9 rolls (not held at the Center of Southwest Studies) is available from Thomson Gale: the supplement to the Papers of Carlos Montezuma, M.D.  "This supplement includes biographical information; correspondence (1887-1921); essays, speeches and testimony; medical information; and material relating to his wife, Maria Keller Montezuma Moore, and his attorney, Joseph W. Latimer.  This new material is indexed in the guide to the initial collection, making accessing information as easy as possible. All those who have used the original set will find this supplement to be an equally valuable resource on Native American and medical history."

Links to sections of this web page

Introduction/ Scope and contents
Biographical note Administrative information
Center of Southwest Studies collection inventories
Microfilm collection guide
Center of Southwest Studies

Introduction/ Scope and contents

Carlos Montezuma, et al., papers on microfilm
Years: 1882-1952
Quantity: 9 rolls

"The papers of Montezuma form an important collection of sources on Native American history, largely created by the Indians themselves, and on the history of medicine."  This microfilm project was edited by John W. Larner, Jr., with the assistance of Thomas C. Huppert.  It was sponsored by the National Historical Publications and Records Commission (the grant-funding arm of the U.S. National Archives and Records Administration) and the American Historical Association. According to the Arizona State University Library's description (that is another location of this microfilm), "The materials contained in the above collection were obtained from over forty repositories throughout the United States, as well as from more than sixty newspapers and periodicals. Every reasonable effort was made to recover Dr. Montezuma’s statements from the press and periodical literature and to search for lost correspondence."

A partial listing of the contents includes:

• Correspondence (1887-1926)
• Essays and speeches (1882-1922)
• His newspaper, Wassaja (1916-1922)
• Society of American Indians materials (1911-1923)
• Medical papers (1886-1922)
• U.S. Justice Department’s file on Montezuma (1917-1919)

A related collection at the Center of Southwest Studies is collection I 035, the Indian Rights Association papers microfilm, 1864-1973, 162 rolls.  That collection includes 136 rolls filmed by UMI (with a printed guide dated 1975, 233 pages, which is located in collection M 129), and also a less comprehensive earlier filming by the Microfilming Corporation of America of 26 rolls of 15 outgoing letterpress copybooks (1886-1901, roll #s 1-10), early letters (1868-86, roll #12), and incoming correspondence (1887-1901, roll #s 12-26).  The originals of those records (approximately 250 linear feet) are at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania (at the HSP site, scroll down to read the Society's description of this collection #1523), as are the papers of Herbert Welsh, who was active in the IRA (collection 702).

Also, see the Theodore Hetzel Papers and the Theodore Hetzel Photograph Collection, both here at the Fort Lewis College Center of Southwest Studies.  Mr. Hetzel was active with the IRA for many years.

Biographical note (quotes and descriptive text on this page are from the Gale website describing this collection)

Carlos Montezuma (circa 1867-1923) was a Native American physician, an author, one of the founders of the Society of American Indians, and an Indian-rights activist.  A Yavapai Indian raised in urban white society, he was both a leading crusader for Native American rights and a prominent physician.  Montezuma urged assimilation, citizenship, and the abolition of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  He lobbied in Congress against the paternalism of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, fought for Yavapai land rights, published the monthly newsletter Wassaja that promoted the Indian cause, and drafted an Indian citizenship bill that became law a year after his death."  Dr. Montezuma’s professional status and eloquence gained him a wide audience for his speeches and for his monthly newsletter.

Administrative information

Acquisition information:  The Center of Southwest Studies purchased these rolls from the National Archives and Records Administration in 1993 via Scholarly Resources, Inc. (accession 1993:02006).

Processing information:  Center of Southwest Studies archival student assistant Elizabeth de Jong digitized the printed guide to this collection in January of 2008 and used Optical Character Recognition (OCR) software to convert it to the keyword-searchable guide that is now accessible to you here.  This inventory was prepared by Todd Ellison, Certified Archivist, November 2004 (last revised in January of 2008).

Subject cataloging access points:
Montezuma, Carlos
Moore, Maria Keller Montezuma
Latimer, Joseph W.
Pratt, Richard Henry
Society of American Indians
Indians of North America--Government relations--Archives
Indians of North America--Public health
Indians of North America--Tribal citizenship
Indians of North America--
Indians, Treatment of--United States
Land grants--Southwest, New
Native American civil rights
Political activists
Tribal government--Arizona
Yavapai Indians

The following is the digital version of this collection guide book, produced by Scholarly Resources, Inc.:







The Papers of Carlos Montezuma microfilm edition described and indexed in this guide was made possible through grants from the National Historical Publications and Records Commission. Also, the support of the American Historical Association, Klein Independent School District (Spring, Texas) and the University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse is gratefully acknowledged.

Researchers citing materials in this edition of the Papers of Carlos Montezuma should use the following format:

Papers of Carlos Montezuma, John William Larner, Jr., Editor, Scholarly Resources Inc.

Quotations for publication or further reproduction of materials contained within the Scholarly Resources edition of the pa1ers of Carlos Montezuma, except for purposes of scholarly criticism or comment, require specific permission from owners of original documents and copyright holders. Each document's repository is indicated by an acronym target; acronyms are decoded in the section of the guide entitled “Acronyms Decoded”.

~ 1984 by Scholarly Resources Inc. All rights reserved
First published 1984
Printed in the United States of America
SCHOLARLY RESOURCES INC. 104 Greenhill Avenue Wilmington, Delaware 19805

including the papers of MARIA KELLER MONTEZUMA MOORE, 1910-1952 |
and JOSEPH W. LATIMER, 1911-1934
Editor John William Larner, Jr.
Assistant Editor Thomas C. Huppert
Editorial Assistants Sammetta P. Banks Thelma M. Schwartz

“It is that crawling, sneaking, squeezing, lapping, and sucking, devilish vampire of civilization.”

Carlos Montezuma, Fragment, State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Box 10, Folder 4


The Papers of Carlos Montezuma offer researchers an important collection of Native American history sources from the 1890s through the 1920s, most of the material created by Indians themselves. Included are correspondence, speeches, essays, medical notes, financial material and a virtually complete run of Dr. Montezuma's newsletter, Wassaja. Also included are letters and publications of Carlos Montezuma's attorney, Joseph W. Latimer, and the correspondence of his wife, Maria Keller Montezuma Moore. The documents in this edition are drawn from over forty repositories and roughly sixty newspapers and periodicals.

Carlos Montezuma (c. 1867-1923), a Yavapai named Wassaja (beckoning, signaling), was an Indian service physician, Chicago gastro-intestinal specialist and medical school instructor, and a leading native American rights advocate who urged assimilation, citizenship and the abolition of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. He was one of a small group of educated and highly articulate Indian leaders who, in 1910, formed the Society of American Indians. After a rocky honeymoon with the SAI, Montezuma led the organization to adopt his views by 1915. The following year Dr. Montezuma began publication of his feisty monthly newsletter, Wassaja, sustaining it to November 1922, two months before his death. His actions to block invasions of Fort McDowell Yavapai land and water rights are classic, rich with lessons transcending time and place. Carlos Montezuma's incredible odyssey is outlined more fully in the chronology below. His wide net of contacts among both urban and reservation Indians, BIA staff and field employees, Congressional leaders, and “friends of the Indian” throughout the nation have generated a body of source materials providing unique access to the ideas, personalities and methods of the early twentieth-century native American rights movement.

The inspiration and kind assistance of these individuals helped rescue Dr. Montezuma from possible obscurity. I am grateful this project brought each of these persons closer to my life. John Williams, Fort McDowell, Arizona; Rayna Greene, Smithsonian Institution; Charles C. Colley, University of Texas-Arlington; Mary-Jo Kline, Sotheby, Parke, Bernet Inc.; Charles Gillette, New York State Museum; John W. Kennedy, M.D., Phoenix, Arizona; Bill Willard, Washington State University; Terry Abraham, Washington State University; Gerald Ham, State Historical Society of Wiscon­sin; David Laird, University of Arizona; John Aubrey, Newberry Library; Ray Wilson, Fort Hays State University; Minnie Williams, Fort McDowell, Arizona; Glenn Bourchette, Federal Records Center, Laguna Niguel, California; Cordelia Neitz, Cumberland County Historical Society, Carlisle, Pennsylvania; John Smith, Fort McDowell, Arizona; Linda Crist, editor, Papers of Jefferson Davis, Rice University; John Caldwell, Carl Albert Center, University of Oklahoma; Blaise Gagliano, Arizona State Library and Archives; Robert Hill, editor, Papers of Marcus Garvey, University of California, Los Angeles; David Mifflin, Houston, Texas; Brian Patton, Cleveland, Ohio; Jean Foss, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse; Bob Knecht, Kansas State Historical Society; Donald R. Collins, Klein Independent School District, Spring, Texas; Samuel R. Gammon, American Historical Association; Dermont Mellick, M.D., Phoenix, Arizona; Renee M. Jaussaud, National Archives and Records Service.

Most of the above had the advantage of distance, having only to tolerate the editor's questions and quirks when he came to town on short-term research forays. Others were not so fortunate and deserve special thanks for their sustained understanding at close range and over the long haul.

My wife, Bernadine Louise (Buseman) Larner, early recognized the essential decency and importance of Dr. Montezuma and urged me on, carrying me through with her love, insights and patient willingness to tackle a number of editorial responsibilities.

George E. Carter, editor, The Papers of Black Abolitionists, introduced me to Dr. Montezuma and, in his immensely kind and quiet way, guided me through proposal writing and the initial stages of project organization.

Michele and Mark Aldrich--well, what can be said! The “Hotel Aldrich” is a Washington home for a veritable generation of wander­ing researchers in the history of science, women's history, economics, Native American history and a range of other interests. The interdisciplinary drive of Aldrich household conversations, coupled with Michele and Mark's politely nagging questions, insist on both context and depth, ever confronting the human concerns which must inform all scholarship. Michele and Mark have been at the heart of the Montezuma project and its editor for some years.

Sara Dunlap Jackson of NHPRC first demonstrated to me the power of the National Archives, revealing a variety of ways its collections can be searched for Native American history.

Mary Giunta of NHPRC always and enthusiastically put her sensitivity, amazingly multiple-tracked mind and rich backlog of goodwill among the many sectors of NARS staff at the service of Dr. Montezuma and his editor.

Roger Bruns and George Vogt of the NHPRC eased the ways to completion of The Papers of Carlos Montezuma, offering the array of carrots and crying towels for which they are duly famous.

Dixie Davis of the Fort McDowell Yavapai community quietly led me to the places and among the people so sacred to Dr. Montezuma. Through her, his presence became real.

Carolina Butler of Scottsdale, Arizona, astute and unselfish, is cast in the mold of Dr. Montezuma. Like him, her dedication, decency and articulation of Yavapai concerns will help save a people from extinction.

Annette and Leon Summit graciously cooperated by allowing the copying and processing of Montezuma documents they control. Their considerable hospitality and informed concern generously supplied the editor with sustenance for body and mind during many pleasant days in Merrick, Long Island.

Justin Borkowski, field editor for Scholarly Resources, brought Dr. Montezuma to the attention of his firm. Dan Helmstadter, president of Scholarly Resources, with considerable feeling for what Dr. Montezuma was about, brings this project to completion.

Microfilm editions do not usually carry dedications, but this is not a “usual” collection of papers. Three close friends died during the years spanned by this project. They shared the values of Carlos Montezuma and eagerly supported this work. The microfilm edition of The Papers of Carlos Montezuma is dedicated to the memories of:

John W. Larner, Sr., Harry A. Dawson, Carmen Carter,
Altoona, Pennsylvania 21 May 1983

John W. Larner, Jr., Editor, The Papers of Carlos Montezuma


CONTENTS (page numbers refer to pages in the printed guide)

Project History and Focus  …………………………………………………………….. 1

Carlos Montezuma: A Chronology ……………………………………………………… 3

Maria Keller Montezuma Moore and Joseph W. Latimer: Biographical Notes ........…...… 9

A Provenance Tale ……………………………………………………………………... 11

Manuscript Collections, Government Documents,  Newspapers and Periodicals Consulted  17

       Manuscript Collections ………………...………...………………..…………… 17

       United States Government Documents  ………….……………………………... 23

       Newspapers …………..…………………………...……………………………. 23

       Periodicals ……………………………………...……………..…………………25

Arrangement of the Collection--Overview  …………………………………………….. 27

Arrangement of the Collection …………………………………………………………. 31

       The Papers of Carlos Montezuma, 1871-1952 …………………..………...…... 31

       The Papers of Maria Keller Montezuma Moore, 1910-1952..….…….……...…. 32

       The Papers of Joseph W. Latimer, 1911-1934 .........………………….……..…. 32

Acronyms Decoded ………….…………………………………………………………. 33

       Repositories …………..………………………………………………………… 33

       Correspondents …….…………………………………………………………... 36


Index the Papers of Carlos Montezuma ……………………………………………... 39

1.  Correspondence….……………………………..…………………………… 39

2.  Wassaja, 1916-1922 ……………………………………………………... 88

       3.  Essays, Speeches and Testimony, 1882-1922, undated …………………… 89

       4.  Bureau of Investigation, Carlos Montezuma Case Files, 1917-1919 ...……. 94

       5.   Plays, 1920-1922 ……………………………..……..……………………. 94

       6.  Poetry, 1911, undated……………………….…………………………….. 94

       7.  Carlos Montezuma Quoting Others, 1913, undated ……………………….. 94

       8.  Carlos Montezuma Quoted, 1882-1926, undated ………………………….. 94

       9.  Aphorisms, undated……………………………………………………….. 94

       10.  Notes, undated…………………………………………………………….. 95

      11.  Fragments, undated………………………………………………………... 95

      12.  General Medical, 1891-1915, undated ………………………………………95

      13.  Medical Notebooks, 1886-1904, undated …………………………………...95

      14.  Medical Case Notes, 1910-1921, undated …………………………………. 95

      15.  Medical Prescriptions, 1904-1922, undated ……………………………….. 96

      16.  Medical Fragments, 1905-1913, undated ………………………………….. 96

      17.  Financial Records, 1892-1922, undated …………………………………… 96

      18.  Lists and Rosters, 1880-1920, undated ……………………………………. 96

       19.  Affidavits, Applications, Certificates and Forms, 1882-1921, undated    …  96

       20.  Miscellaneous, 1894-1921, undated ……………………………………….. 96

      21.  Iconographic Materials, 1871-1920 ………………………………………... 96

      22.  Society of American Indians Materials, 1911-1923, undated    .……….…..96

23.   Others--Correspondence, 1895-1925, undated …………………………..… 96

24.   Others--Government Documents, 1884-1914, undated …………………… l06

25.   Others--Essays and Speeches, 1905-1922, undated ………………………. l06

26.   Others--Miscellaneous, 1904 -1918, undated …………………………...... 106

27.   Others--Poetry, 1921, undated ……………………………………………. 107

28.   Others--Notes, 1952, undated  ……………………………………………. 107

29.   Others--Newspaper Items, 1916-1920 ……………………………………..107

30.   Others--Fragments, 1919-1922, undated …………………………………..107

31.   Others--Iconographic Materials, undated ………………………………….107


Index to the Papers of Maria Keller Montezuma Moore ………………………… 109

1.    Correspondence, 1910-1952 ……………………………………………….109

2.    Financial Materials, 1912-1952 …………………………………………... 111

3.    Miscellaneous, 1913, undated  …………………………………………… 111


Index to the Papers of Joseph W. Latimer ……………………………………….   113

1.    Correspondence, 1911-1934 ……………………………………………… 113

2.    Addresses, Articles and Publications ……………………………………... 117

3.    Miscellaneous, 1911-1929, undated ……………………………………… 117



The Papers of Carlos Montezuma project began in December 1977 with the compilation of a list of correspondents found in the Montezuma collection at the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Armed with this list, student volunteers scanned the National Union Catalogue of Manuscript Collections for leads. During late December, 1977 and January 1978 collections of Dr. Montezuma1s major correspondents were searched to estimate the likely number of extant Montezuma documents. Also during this period, the Indian Bureau holdings at the National Archives were surveyed for Carlos Montezuma items, and the correspondents represented in Montezuma collections at the University of Arizona and Arizona State University were checked in NUCMC, with mail inquiries directed to repositories. Information gained from these investigations formed the basis of a successful funding proposal submitted to the National Historical Publications and Records Commission by spring of 1978.

The University of Wisconsin at La Crosse, through its Institute for Minority Studies directed by George E. Carter, agreed to cosponsor the Papers of Carlos Montezuma, providing the project an institutional base and funds augmenting the NHPRC grant. The editor's employer, the Klein Independent School District of Spring, Texas, granted a year's leave of absence and subsequently became the project’s home between 1979 and 1981 during two successive NHPRC grant periods. During NHPRC's post-1981 hiatus, the editor departed Texas, returning to his home in Pennsylvania. The project took refuge in the third floor of an Altoona house of Montezuma vintage. Project completion has been made possible through a 1983 NHPRC grant and the support of the American Historical Association.

The materials contained in The Papers of Carlos Montezuma were obtained from over forty repositories throughout the United States, as well as from more than sixty newspapers and periodicals. Every reasonable effort has been launched to recover Dr. Montezuma’s statements from the press and periodical literature, as well as to search for lost correspondence enclosures. Manuscript collections and other sources drawn upon by this project are listed in this guide.

The focus of this project has been on what Carlos Montezuma wrote or said, and on manuscript or typed items received by Dr. Montezuma. Published materials in the various Carlos Montezuma collections are not usually included in this microfilm edition, unless adorned by the doctor's marginalia. Dr. Montezuma's library was extensive, and his interest in the periodical literature of Medicine and Native American politics wide-ranging. Persons interested in these materials should consult the collections at the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Arizona State University and the Montezuma items held by Leon Summit of Merrick, New York.

No serious attempt has been made to include iconographic items in this microfilm edition, although photocopies of some pictorial items are to be found--perhaps sufficient to whet the appetite. Montezuma iconographic materials of importance are found in the collections at Arizona State University, State Historical Society of Wisconsin, University of Illinois Archives, Chicago Historical Society, the Collester Collection in the Smithsonian Institution's National Anthropological Archives, the Cumberland County Historical Society at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, and in the United States Army Military Institute at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania.


Circa 1867 -- Wassaja born in central Arizona.

   1871 -- Wassaja purchased by Carlos Gentile and baptized Carlos Montezuma.

1872 -- Carlos Montezuma taken East by Carlos Gentile, visiting Denver, Chicago, Washington, New York City, Detroit, Grand Rapids and returning to Chicago.

 1875 -- After several years attending Chicago public schools, living with a procession of vaudeville performers and developing keen street sense, Carlos Montezuma was placed with a family in Galesburg, Illinois.

 1877 -- Moved to Brooklyn, New York.

 1878 -- A brief sojourn in Boston was followed by a return to Illinois by fall, with enrollment in public school at Urbana.

 1879 -- Entered the Preparatory School of the University of Illinois.

 1880 -- Enrolled at the University of Illinois; II second II baptism, First Baptist Church, Urbana, Illinois.

 1881 -- Oratorical prowess noted by The Illini, student newspaper at the University of Illinois. Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois granted tuition remission in view of “Charles” Montezuma's performance and promise.

 1882 -- Became secretary of the Adelphics, one of the University of Illinois’ three debate societies.

 1883 -- “C. Montezuma” elected president of the University of Illinois class of 1884.

 1884 -- Elected president of the Adelphic Debate Society at the University of Illinois.

 1885-  Enrolled in Chicago Medical College, the medical department of Northwestern University; employed in a Chicago drug store while a medical student.

 1886 -- Met his lifelong mentor and soul mate, Richard Henry Pratt, founder and superintendent of the United States Indian Industrial School at Carlisle, Pennsylvania.

 1887 -- First major public address, New York City.

 1889 -- Graduated from Chicago Medical College, briefly entered practice in Chicago, then accepted appointment as school clerk and physician for the Indian Service at Fort Stevenson, North Dakota.

 1890 -- Following serious difficulties with the Indian Agent at Fort Stevenson, Montezuma accepted the post of agency physician at Western Shoshone Reservation, White Rock, Nevada.

 1892 -- Conducted a survey of Indian agents to determine English literacy levels of Indian students; also, laid plans for a society to help locate employment for educated Indians. Drew notice of participants in Lake Mohonk Conference.

 1893 -- Although on the program of the World's Congress Auxiliary to deliver an address on “The Effect of Climate Upon the Indian” at the Chicago World's Fair, Montezuma did not attend. Appointed physician at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School in Pennsylvania.

Speech at Lake Mohonk Conference.  

1894 -- Traveled widely, recruiting students for Carlisle and extolling the school's program.  

1895 -- Delivered his first medical lecture before the Cumberland County Medical Society in Carlisle, Pennsylvania; elected vice-president of the society. Speech at Lake Mohonk Conference.  

1896 -- Departed Carlisle; obtained an Illinois medical license; opened a gastro-intestinal practice at a prestigious Chicago Loop location and joined the noted stomach specialist, Fenton B. Turck, in his teaching at Chicago's Post Graduate Medical School. Resumed activities with Chicago's First Baptist Church, engaging in lay preaching and operating a clinic at the church's West Side Bohemia Mission.  

1899 -- Traveled to San Francisco as physician for the Carlisle football team during a West Coast tour to play University of California at Berkeley.  

1900 -- Visited Indian Schools at Phoenix and Lawrence, Kansas, while returning East with Carlisle football team, The Indian Helper of 19 January 1900 reporting him as “the life of the party.”  

1901 -- Traveled to San Carlos Agency and Iron Peak during the first of many yearly treks to Fort McDowell, Arizona. Commenced lifelong efforts to preserve land and water rights of Fort McDowell Yavapais.  

1902 -- Broke engagement with Gertrude Simmons, she accusing: “You wrote cruelly--wickedly--in the manner of some low Italian day-go.” 

1904 -- Tended Indian victims of Buffalo Bill Show train wreck in Chicago's Maywood yards, contesting the role and judgment of the Indian Service regarding claims. Rejected in his bid for hand of Lillian Underwood, daughter of William Underwood, a prominent New York banker. Appointed to faculty of Chicago's College of Physicians and Surgeons. Refused to lend name to nascent Indian organization to support GOP progressives.  

1905 -- Montezuma, embittered by Pratt's forced resignation from superintendency of Carlisle, crusaded to have Pratt reinstated.  

1907 -- Launched widespread newspaper attacks on Carlisle's football team recruitment and retention practices, possibly hastening resignation of Pratt's successor. 

1909 -- Joined in a lecture series by Charles A. Eastman and Sherman Coolidge at Ohio State University, making acquaintance of the social scientist, Fayette Avery McKenzie, and laying groundwork for the Society of American Indians. Attended Indian Memorial Association meetings at Haskell Institute, Lawrence, Kansas.  

1911 -- Attended organizational meetings of SAI, but refused to participate in its first annual conference, seeing the SAI as a captive lobby of the Indian Bureau. Branded “obstreperous” by Rosa B. LaFlesche. Aided by Attorney Joseph W. Latimer of Galesburg, Illinois, and several Yavapais, Montezuma testified at hearings of the US House of Representatives Committee to Investigate Expenditures in the Interior Department.  

1912 -- Led an entourage of prominent physicians and journalists, including the Chicago Tribune's noted editorial cartoonist, John Tinney McCutcheon, to Fort McDowell. Attended second annual conference of SAI at Columbus, Ohio. Usually a Republican, Carlos Montezuma, bitter in the wake of Pratt's dismissal by Theodore Roosevelt and Francis Leupp, supported Woodrow Wilson and the Democrats in 1912.  

1913 -- Married Maria Keller, a German-speaking native of Rumania. Refused to attend SAI’s third annual conference in Denver, believing it was controlled by the Denver Publicity League. Led another committee of notables to Fort McDowell, including McCutcheon and Collier's writer and editor, John M. Oskisson.  

1914 -- Described by The North American as “one of the most widely known Indians in the country,” Dr. Montezuma attended a mid-year SAI conference in Philadelphia. A 1 so, he attended the SAI I S fourth annual meeting in Madison, Wisconsin.  

1915 -- Delivered a major address, “Let My People Go,” during the SAI’s fifth annual conference in Engineering Hall of the University of Kansas. The Lawrence Daily Journal World of 30 September 1915 proclaimed: “Dr. Montezuma is a splendid speaker--would be called one on any rostrum between the oceans--on any subject he might elect to speak from.” Montezuma Literary Society organized at Haskell Institute.  

1916 -- First issue of Wassaja published. Attended sixth SAI annual meeting at Cedar Rapids, Iowa.  

1917 -- Joined the staff of the Chicago Hospital College of Medicine. Received publications opposing US entry into World War I. Also, acquired books supporting independence of India. Placed under surveillance by US military intelligence and the Justice Department’s Bureau of Investigation. SAI postponed its annual conference, owing to wartime emotional climate.  

1918 -- Organized the League for the Extension of Democracy to the Indians to pressure Congress for Native American citizenship and abolition of the Indian Service. Gave keynote address to SAI conference at Pierre, South Dakota. 

1919 -- Attended SAI annual meeting at Minneapolis, Minnesota.  

1920 -- Was present at SAI annual meeting in St. Louis and the Republican national convention in Chicago. Increasingly involved with Indians of southern California and Washington state.  

1921 -- At Detroit, Michigan, annual conference of SAI. Received financial support from Anita Baldwin, ranching and racing heiress of Santa Anita, California.

1922 -- Indian Bureau rejected Carlos Montezuma’s petition for enrollment at San Carlos Agency. Participated in the SAI annual conference at Kansas City, Missouri.

Montezuma and Latimer, working with the Indian Rights Association and the American Civil Liberties Union, developed text of an Indian citizenship bill introduced in the US House of Representatives by Congressman Melville Clyde Kelly of Braddock, Pennsylvania. In December, Carlos Montezuma returned to Fort McDowell to die.  

1923 -- January 31 Carlos Montezuma died of tuberculosis in traditional Yavapai wicki-up along Verde River, Fort McDowell, Arizona. Interred at Fort McDowell.  

1924 -- Indian Citizenship bill signed by President Calvin Coolidge.



Maria Montezuma and Joseph W. Latimer were among the most important people in Carlos Montezuma's life. Little is known about either of these persons, other than information derived from mini-collections attached to The Papers of Carlos Montezuma.

Carlos Montezuma and Maria Keller were married on September 19, 1913, with Montezuma’s Urbana boyhood mentor, Reverend Doctor William H. Stedman, officiating. Perhaps Montezuma met her in the course of his medical and lay preaching activities at the “Bohemian Mission” operated in the near West Side by Chicago's First Baptist Church. The marriage license on file in the Cook County, Illinois, clerk's office shows Maria's age to have been 25, placing her birth in 1888. Apparently, she had migrated to Chicago from Rumania. Maria's mother was thought to have been a German agent during World War I, perhaps helping to focus military and civil intelligence attention on the Montezuma household.

Maria Montezuma sometimes traveled to the reservation communities where her husband was active. Carlos Montezuma addressed Maria as “Dutchie” and “Dovie”. She addressed him as “Wassaja” and his letters to Maria are the only ones surviving where he signed his Yavapai boyhood name.

Carlos Montezuma acquired for Maria a number of building lots in Harvey, Illinois between 1919 and 1922. Not long after his death in 1923, she remarried. Her second husband, a boarder in the Montezuma household, was a Pima named William T. Moore. At about this time she moved from Chicago to Blue Island, Illinois where she resided at 2219 Prairie Street until her death in 1956.

Joseph W. Latimer was born and raised in Galesburg, Illinois.

Possibly he and Carlos Montezuma became acquainted during Montezuma's brief sojourn in Galesburg prior to his student days in Urbana. Chicago directories place Latimer as an attorney in that city from 1891 until 1915 when, no longer listed as a lawyer, he was shown as secretary of the Climax Container Corporation. By 1918 Latimer departed Chicago, practicing law in Cleveland, San Francisco, and New York. It is impossible to determine why Latimer quit his Chicago law practice. Latimer's use of such phrases as “nightmare in Chicago” to describe his final days in that city suggests that he must have encountered some unpleasantness there.

Montezuma and Latimer first worked together in 1911, amassing evidence and orchestrating testimony for the House of Representatives Committee on Expenditures in the Interior Department. At one point, the committee chair yielded to Latimer, allowing him to interrogate Indian Bureau witnesses. In 1912, Latimer manifested ambitions to become Commissioner of Indian Affairs in the Taft Administration, and in 1913 he tried unsuccessfully to win the Republican nomination for an Illinois state senate seat. His political desires frustrated, Latimer devoted considerable attention to Native American issues, particularly the citizenship question.

Following Montezuma's death in 1923, Latimer picked up where the feisty Yavapai was forced to call a halt. During the next decade, Latimer published an Indian rights newsletter patterned after Wassaja and authored several pamphlets castigating the Indian Bureau in language Montezuma would have relished. The time and place of Joseph Latimer's death is uncertain.



“Broken trusteeship,” “clouded title” and similar phrases shrouding ownership are often used in provenance accounts of the papers of Carlos Montezuma. Forced to use terms more appropriate to describing alienated treaty lands, no one seems able to render a complete title history of the Montezuma collections held at Arizona State University, University of Arizona, Chicago Historical Society, State Historical Society of Wisconsin or in the control of Leon Summit of Merrick, New York, and Frank D. Novak, Jr., of Harvey, Illinois.

Dr. Montezuma's wife, Maria Montezuma Moore, reported in 1934 to Will C. Barnes that the papers were packed and placed in storage “at the time of Dr.'s death.” Evidently taken from storage and available in her residence in Blue Island, Illinois, by 1934, the Montezuma papers were searched for documents and pictures that might help Barn’s in his biographical study of Dr. Montezuma.[1] Writing two years later to Elmer C. Stauffer of the Chicago Press Club, Barnes reported that Maria Montezuma Moore married Carlos Montezuma “... when very young and has a whole house full of his papers and bocks which she guards like they were priceless and when I looked them over hastily I told her about 80 percent were not worth saving. I wished I had the time then to give them a good going over just for my own satisfaction.”[2] If Barnes' assessment was designed to induce a large donation of papers, it seems to have failed. If it led Carlos Montezuma's wife to dispose of portions of the collections, there is no way to know.

A representative of the Arizona Historical Society appealed to Montezuma's wife in January, 1935 to either donate Montezuma's papers at that time or provide for such a transfer in her will.[3] Apparently Mrs. Moore did neither; however, Will C. Barnes borrowed papers from Mari a Montezuma Moore from time to time. Some of these Montezuma documents may have arrived at the Arizona Historical Society with the Will C. Barnes Collection. The State Historical Society of Wisconsin holds a small group of unprocessed photocopies of Montezuma documents obtained from the Arizona Historical Society. The documents from which these photocopies were taken can­not be located at the Arizona Historical Society, nor does it hold records of any Montezuma manuscript acquisitions. Barnes' “borrow­ings” and the Madison photocopies suggest that the Arizona Historical Society at one time may have had Montezuma documents in its Will C. Barnes Collection.

Maria Montezuma Moore died in 1956, apparently leaving the Blue Island house and its contents without direct heirs. There were no children born to her by either Carlos Montezuma or William T. Moore. While vastly simplifying literary copyright to the documents created by Carlos Montezuma, the provenance plot thickened impenetra­bly during the days following Maria's demise. It is said that the house was raided by looters seeking the pipes, baskets, bead-ware, pottery and other Native American artifacts collected by Dr. Mon­tezuma. In the course of this activity, manuscripts were ransacked for the postage stamps affixed to the envelopes Dr. Montezuma often clipped to inbound letters. Eventually, the badly disheveled papers were put out in the street for trash collection. Behold the enlightened trash hauler--so often making a critical appearance in these tales--recognized the worth of Dr. Montezuma's papers and tidily restored them to the porch! Those telling the story often add that the Chicago winds, less discerning and meticulous than the fabled trash collector, carried many a Montezuma document through the Blue Island streets.

It is impossible to reconstruct fully the travels of Carlos Montezuma's papers between the Moore house in Blue Island and their current archival and other abodes. It is easiest to trace backwards each of the present caches of Montezuma documents, a process that often breaks paths to the doors of Chicago-area people who have remained vague or silent about where they obtained “their” col­lections of Montezuma papers.

The University of Arizona, for example, received its slim but useful collection of Montezuma manuscripts in 1967 as a gift from James G. Lotter of Chicago. According to information in the manu­script card catalogue at the Chicago Historical Society, Lotter made preliminary inquiries about Montezuma papers at that repository in February, 1967, indicating he would get back to them at a later date. Lotter, or someone at his address, receives mail about this matter, but neglects to respond to it.

The Chicago Historical Society had already obtained photos of Dr. Montezuma from Richard Miller of Palos Park, Illinois on 12 July 1966. Also the Society obtained photocopies of original documents controlled by Leon Summit of Merrick, New York.

The substantial holdings of Carlos Montezuma material in the Arizona Collection of Arizona State University's Hayden Library were purchased in 1973 from Frank D. Novak, Sr., of Calument Park, Illinois. Stories appearing in Chicago Today (27 July 1973) and two Arizona State University's publications of the mid-1970s report Novak's claim that he bought a trunk in 1962, neglected opening it for many a year, and when finally he did--lo and behold--the papers of a noted Chicago physician and native American rights leader! Novak did not sell the entire trunk load to Arizona State University; Frank D. Novak, Jr., of Harvey, Illinois retains a small and generally inconsequential file.

The State Historical Society of Wisconsin's major Montezuma manuscript collection was acquired for the Society in 1972 by the University of Wisconsin and the Wisconsin History Foundation. The published guide to this collection reported that “the record of trusteeship” of Dr. Montezuma's papers was broken after his wife's death in 1956. Continuing, the guide related on page nine that: “The collection reappeared at an auction house in Huntsville, Alaba­ma, from which it was purchased by a resident of Franklin, Wisconsin, who resold it in 1971 to the Memorabilia Antique Company of Denver, Colorado.” By early 1979, the State Historical Society of Wisconsin was unable to produce correspondence or other evidence backing the provenance account in the guide to its Montezuma collection.

Accounts appearing in Huntsville and Denver newspapers help fill in the story outlined by the State Historical Society of Wiscon­sin. According to The Huntsville Times of 15 September, 1966, the Society's Franklin connection was Richard J. Dahlman, then a resident of Huntsville, Alabama. The Times reported that “John Quincy Adams, Richard Dahlman, and Philip Brosemer purchased an old trunk at an auction at Scant City near Huntsville, believing it to contain numerous arrowheads and several peace pipes. “Whi1e books and papers were listed, the story concentrated on the Native American artifacts found in the trunk. Adams, described as a “week-end auctioneer,” insisted that the collection not be split and that, hopefully, it might find a home in a museum or university.

Memorabilia Antique Company, a short-lived Denver operation, acquired the Montezuma materials in 1971 and, by 1972, was adver­tising for bids on the Yavapai's papers and artifacts. A 16mm microfilm of the papers was supplied to prospective buyers so they could preview the wares in the comfort of their own repositories. Copies made from this microfilm may account for spotty Montezuma col­lections here and there. Possibly, Memorabilia broke the collection, selling it in segments. Whatever transpired, John and Carol Fryer, Memorabilia's proprietors, closed their storefront operation and left town shortly after selling the Montezuma materials. Apparently not well known in the Denver archival community, the Fryers preserved their obscurity by not providing a forwarding address. From Denver, the Huntsville Montezuma collection moved to Madison.

Not all of the Montezuma manuscripts turning up in Alabama surfaced in Wisconsin. An important number were lost en route-­perhaps between Huntsville and Denver, maybe some were separated by the Fryers at Memorabilia. The 16mm preview film used by the Fryers was made in Huntsville by Leon Summit of Merrick, Long Island, New York. Hard copy from this film checked against the Montezuma papers at the State Historical Society of Wisconsin documents the losses between Huntsville and Madison. The location of the strayed manu­scripts has not been established.

Soon after the arrival of Dr. Montezuma's papers and artifacts in Denver, the Empire Magazine of the 27 February 1972 Denver Post carried a feature explaining that the collection “… probably would have disappeared entirely but for the efforts of Leon Summit, whose interest in Montezuma was aroused by accident.” The Post continued:

Summit, then editor of a drug company house organ, was writing a story about the Chicago fire of 1871 and during his research came across the name of Dr. Carlos Montezuma. He eventually tracked down Montezuma's personal files, which at one time had been put out at a street curb as trash. The files were rescued and stored in an old barn, but apparently for­gotten once more. Just 45 minutes before the barn was demolished to make way for a new highway the papers were rescued again. Eventually they were brought together with the collection of Indian artifacts.

The materials passed from hand to hand and eventually into the possession of Dick Dahlman of Franklin, Wisconsin, a friend of John and Carol Fryer, operators Memorabilia Antiques, 1516 Blake Street, Denver.  

The Denver Post, perhaps inaccurately, implies that Leon Summit “rescued” the papers of Carlos Montezuma, from a single source, simply to pass them along intact to Richard Dahlman and the Fryers. Newspapers in Chicago and Tucson, the latter quoting Leon Summit directly, carry different versions of the tale!

Leon Summit acquired a significant collection of Carlos Montezuma manuscripts by late 1966. The Chicago Tribune of 30 November 1966 and the Tucson Daily Citizen of 5 January 1967 reported that Summit’s Montezuma holdings were given freely by people from all parts of the country and that, in turn, he would donate the documents to the University of Arizona once he completed a biography of the Yavapai physician. The Chicago Tribune stated: “Summit said he discovered Dr. Montezuma last summer while doing research here on the work of physicians during the Chicago fire of 1871. Since then he has gathered from throughout [sic] the nation about 20,000 letters, documents and other published materials about the Apache physician and his fight for Indian rights.”

The Tucson Daily Citizen explained that, in response to an ad he placed in Spectrum, the company publication of Charles Pfizer, a New York drug manufacturer, “Summit was deluged with materials sent from all corners of the nation and from every conceivable source.” Summit expanded for the Citizen: “'People I have never seen--have never known--have entrusted this valuable material to me. That is why I, in turn, will turn most of it over to the University of Arizona.'“

Leon Summit continuing to work on a Montezuma biography kindly permitted staff from the National Publications and Records Commission and The Papers of Carlos Montezuma to photocopy Montezuma manuscripts presently under his control. These materials have been processed and prepared for microfilming. It is agreed that they will be released for filming once Leon Summit has completed his popular biography of Carlos Montezuma. Meanwhile, scholars using this edition of Dr. Montezuma's papers will find the Leon Summit and Frank Novak, Jr. Montezuma papers indexed in the guide, alerting them as fully as possible to the nature and extent of temporary lacunae in The Papers of Carlos Montezuma.


Manuscript Collections


       Arizona Historical Society, Tucson

       Will C. Barnes Collection

       Carlos Montezuma biographical files, M 781


       Arizona Museum, Phoenix


       Arizona State Library and Archives, Phoenix

       Carlos Montezuma Collection


       Arizona State University, Tempe

       Hayden Library, Arizona Collection

       Carl Hayden Papers

       Carlos Montezuma Papers


       University of Arizona, Tucson

       University Library, Special Collections

       Carlos Montezuma Papers



       Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino

       Horatio N. Rust Papers, RU 454


       Southwest Museum, Los Angeles

       Administrative Files

       970.2 M. Montezuma, Carlos


       University of California at Berkeley

       Bancroft Library

       George B. Clements Papers, CB 780, Carton 13, “Indians”

    Indian Defense Association of Northern California Papers, Carton 6, “Indian Citizenship,”

       “Latimer, Joseph”; Carton 7, “Bureaucracy a la mode

       Charles Erskine Scott Wood Papers

       72178c, Carton 4, “M-Misc.”



       Yale University, New Haven

       Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library

       Western Americana Collection

       Papers of Richard Henry Pratt


District of Columbia  

       Library of Congress

       Manuscripts Division

       William E. Borah Papers

       Henry Laurens Dawes Papers

       William Howard Taft Papers


       National Archives and Records Service

    RG 48:   Office of the Secretary of the Interior, Indian Office, Salt River Allotments,


           Central Classified Files, 1907-1936

             Salt River Investigations; 5-1

             San Carlos Enrollment; 5-1

             Klamath--Attorneys and Agents; 5-1

    RG 60:   Records of the Department of Justice

           File No. 216628-24

    RG 65:   Records of the Federal Bureau of Investigation

           File No. OG 90685

    RG 75:   Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs

           Office of the Commissioner, Letters Sent, 1889-1901

           Board of Indian Commissioners,

           General Correspondence, 1899-1918, Miscellaneous Persons, 1915-1918, J-N, Tray No. 37

         Letters Sent, 1870-1908, Accounts Education, Finance, Lands

            Letters Received, 1881-1907

            Central Classified Files, 1907-1936

             9905-1924-155 (Note: 155 is circled)

             100865-1914-723 Bismark

             99122-1915-723 Grand Portage

             56183-1913-313 Pima

             63455-1912-174 1 Pima

             76739-1915-313 Pima

             8376-1911-313 Camp McDowell

             30858-1910-133 Camp McDowell

             58145-1911-313 Camp McDowell

             8706-1917-320 Salt River

             28651-1917-134 Salt River

             42803-1914 155 Salt River

             51444-1918-063 Salt River

             53376-1921-123 Salt River

             63340-1920-224 Salt River

           67496-1917-341 Salt River I

           67496-1917-341 Salt River II

           67496-1917-341 Salt River III

           77682-1917-155 Salt River

           79374-1919-155 Salt River

           97311-1921-271 Salt River

           106678-1919-255 Salt River

           111718-1913-063 Salt River

           114513-1915-377 Salt River

           114979-1915-424 Salt River

           45642-1920-052 San Carlos

           84801-1915-052 San Carlos

    RG 94:   Records of the Adjutant General’s Office

           Records Cards 1890-1917, Boxes 2556 and 3298

    RG 165: Records of the Military Intelligence Division

           File No. 10500-15

    RG 233: Records of the United States House of

             Representatives, 62nd Congress (1911-1913),

             Committee on Indian Affairs, 62A-D6

             Box 6553


    Smithsonian Institution

    Bureau of American Ethnology

    National Anthropological Archives

    Collester Collection

    Correspondence, 1909-1949

    Letters Received, 1888-1906

    Letters Received, 1907

    Letters Received and Sent, 1909-1950

    Letters Sent, General Series



    Chicago Historical Society, Chicago

Carlos Montezuma Papers, 66:591

Wassaja, E77:W28


Knox College, Galesburg

Whiting-Tryon Papers


Newberry Library, Chicago

Edward E. Ayers Collection, “Carlos Montezuma” File

Elmo Scott Watson Collection


Frank D. Novak, Jr., Harvey


University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana

University Library; Carlos Montezuma's BS Thesis

University Archives:

        2/4/1, President Andrew Sloan Draper Papers, General Correspondence, 1894-1904, Box 10, “Me-My, 1894-1904”

        2/4/3, Letterbooks


        26/4/1, “Montezuma, Carlos, 1884, Wassaja, Correspondence;”

        “Montezuma, Carlos, 1884, Wassaja, Publications”



Harvard University, Cambridge

Tozzer Library



Grand Rapids Public Library, Grand Rapids



Nevada Historical Society, Reno

William M. Stewart, Letterbooks


New Mexico  

Neil McCullough Clark, Santa Fe

Stan Steiner, Santa Fe


New York  

Leon Summit, Merrick, Long Island


Microfilm of the Richard Dahlman

    Huntsville manuscripts

New York State Museum, Albany

Society of American Indian Papers


University of Rochester, Rochester

Rush Rhees Library Special Collections

Arthur C. Parker Papers, Box 3, Folder II



Ohio Historical Society, Columbus

Carlos Montezuma, printed matter

Society of American Indians publications

Temperance and Prohibition Papers

Warren G. Harding Papers



Morris Opler, Norman


University of Oklahoma, Norman

Western History Center

Carlos Montezuma File



University of Oregon, Eugene

Library, Special Collections

Ruth M. Underhill Papers, including the George W. Ingalls Papers, AX 570, Box 3, Folder 3



Cumberland County Historical Society, Carlisle

Indexed holdings of Carlisle Indian Industrial School publications


Haverford College, Haverford

Quaker Collection


Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia

Indian Rights Association Papers


United States Army Military History Institute, Carlisle

“Carlisle Indian School, Richard Henry Pratt”



Tennessee State Library and Archives, Nashville

Fayette Avery McKenzie Papers



Panhandle-Plains Historical Museum, Canyon

Susan Janney Allen Collection



Federal Archives Records Center, Seattle

Colville Agency Records; Miscellaneous Letters Received, 1879-1904, Box 31

Crow Agency Records; Letters and Telegrams Sent and Received by Indian Agents--Miscellaneous, 1898-1902, Box 39; Miscellaneous Letters Sent, 1883-1910, Box 19


Washington State University, Pullman

Holland Library, Special Collections, Lucullus Virgil McWhortor Papers



State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison

William A. Jones Papers, Letterpress Volumes 12 and 18

Carlos Montezuma Papers

Carlos Montezuma unprocessed collection, M77 520

Carlos Montezuma iconographic and museum holdings, 1972.152



United States Government Documents 

U.S. Congress, (62:2), Senate, Committee on Indian Affairs Hearing on HR 18244, “Pima Indian Reservation,” 4 March 1912 (Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1913)

 U.S. Congress, (62:1) House, Committee on Expenditures in the Interior Department Hearing on HR 103, 5-17 June 1911 (Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 1911). Available via Congressional Information Service, U.S. Congressional Hearings Supplement, 103 Hexi 62-C

 Congressional Record (64:4) House, Volume 64, Part 1

                   (67:1) House, Volume 61, Part 5

                   (71:1) Senate, Volume 71, Part 1

 U.S. Department of the Interior, Annual Reports of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1890, 1891, 1892, 1893 and 1895

 U.S. Bureau of Education, Annual Report of the Commissioner of Education, 1897.




Silver Belt, Globe

Arizona Republican, Phoenix



LaJolla Journal, LaJolla

Los Angeles Times, Los Angeles



Denver Republican, Denver

Daily News, Denver

Rocky Mountain News, Denver



Journal-Courier, New Haven



Chicago Record-Herald, Chicago

Chicago Tribune, Chicago

Daily All-American, Chicago

Daily News, Chicago

Illini, Urbana

Inter Ocean, Chicago



Cedar Rapids Daily Republican, Cedar Rapids

Evening Gazette, Cedar Rapids



Lawrence Daily Journal-World, Lawrence



Christian Science Monitor, Boston



Detroit Free Press, Detroit

Detroit News, Detroit

Grand Rapids Herald, Grand Rapids



Minneapolis Journal, Minneapolis



Catholic Register, Kansas City

Kansas City Post, Kansas City

Kansas City Times, Kansas City

St. Louis Globe-Democrat, St. Louis

St. Louis Post Dispatch, St. Louis


New York 

New York Evening Post, New York

New York Herald, New York

New York Times, New York

New York Tribune, New York



Ohio State Journal, Columbus



Evening Telegram, Portland



Carlisle Daily Herald, Carlisle

Evening Sentinal, Carlisle

North American, Philadelphia

Public Ledger, Philadelphia


South Dakota  

Daily Capital Journal, Pierre



Madison Democrat, Madison



The American Indian Magazine/Quarterly Journal of the Society of American Indians

 American Indian Advocate

 American Indian: Captive or Citizen

 The American Indian Teepee

 A-Ni-Shi-Na-Be E-Na-Mi-Ad


 Bureaucracy a la Mode

 Current Literature

 The Fra: For Philistines and Roycrofters

 The Indian

 Indian School Journal

 Indian Teepee

 Montana: The Magazine of Western History

 Morning Star

 The New Republic

 The Oglala Light

 Our Captives or Wards: The American Indian

 Ram’s Horn

 The Red Man

 The Red Man and Helper

 Southern Workman


 The Union Signal



We can never know for certain how Carlos Montezuma arranged his papers. The documents traveled separate ways after 1956, some segments of the collection changing hands several times before finding archival repose. Vague vestiges of control mechanisms assure that Dr. Montezuma made efforts to group and label his materials. Drafts of essays and speeches were usually tri-folded and titled on the outside of each packet. Letters appear to have been ordered chronologically with envelopes and enclosures neatly clipped to them. Medical records were arranged alphabetically under large chronological groupings. Much of this work was undone by the time these documents arrived at their present destinations, making the tasks of archival reconstruction difficult indeed.

The work of archivists and at least one historical editor was further complicated by Carlos Montezuma's personal habits and preferences. Dr. Montezuma did not usually retain copies of his outbound correspondence. There were some except ions, mainly letters dealing with matters of pivotal importance. For this reason, it was imperative that all known deposits of papers of his correspondents be searched in efforts to include in this edition both sides of Carlos Montezuma's dialogues.

First drafts of correspondence--and sometimes speeches--were often scribbled by Dr. Montezuma on his prescription pads, the backs of envelopes and business cards, the margins of programs, and even in the few vacant spaces found on railway ticket receipt stubs! These cursory, cryptic--and always undated--notes and jottings, with their richly pithy aphorisms, are included in this edition. Because of this practice, newspapers and periodicals such as the American Indian Magazine/Quarterly Journal of the Society of American Indians were scoured for published essays and reports of Dr. Montezuma’s addresses, since some survive only in reported form. These, too, are included in this edition. Also, some of Dr. Montezuma's correspondence was published in various periodicals and pamphlets. While these items are only purported Montezuma letters, they are nonetheless included, with sources noted. In these ways, the losses resulting from handling or from Montezuma's personal style are at least partly offset.

Carlos Montezuma's handwriting reflected his moods, shifting radically from the best of Palmer Method to illegible scrawl. Also, his in-coming correspondence carried a variety of penmanship specimens with varying degrees of legibility. Many letters and other items in this edition were written with hard, dull pencil on Indian Bureau school tablet paper. Every effort has been made to heighten the contrast of such documents during photocopy processing; but, obviously, handwriting problems persist! When necessary and where possible typed transcriptions are provided. And, fortunately not every item in the collection is handwritten; Dr. Montezuma rented typewriters. Much inbound correspondence is also typed.

This microfilm edition was taken from photocopies, not the original documents. Each photocopied document was in a separate folder and the folder tabs were filmed as targets to identify the document and the repository and collection where the original document is to be found. Folder tab targets accompany each page of a document. Repository acronyms and those identifying persons are decoded below. Uncertainties about dates (sounds like a thirteen-year old) are designated by several devices: “C” for circa and “?”, indicating serious uncertainty. The question mark sometimes appears with the circa designation, meaning that the date given is very approximate indeed. Of course, brackets indicate dates supplied by the project.

There will be slight variations between date information located on targets and that found in the index. Dates in the index are sufficient to locate documents in the films; however, date notations on the targets more accurately reflect the degree of editorial uncertainty about date assignments.

All available copies of documents created by Carlos Montezuma are included. Otherwise, barring textual modification or marginalia, only the clearest available copy of documents not originated by Dr. Montezuma has been filmed. Other comment about specific editorial practice is found below.

The documents presented in this microfilm edition are arranged in three major groups: The Papers of Car1os Montezuma, The Papers of Maria Keller Montezuma Moore, and The Papers of Joseph W. Latimer. Under each of these headings, documents are ordered by generic groups such as correspondence, publications, etc. Thereunder, items are arranged chronologically and, when undated, alphabetically by correspondent or first keyword in either Montezuma's or a project-assigned title. The largest document groups are indexed alphabetically. In smaller but important groups, items are 1isted in the index as they appear in the microfilm. Small and relatively less important document groups are not shown in the index, since the reader can survey them as quickly on film.

Throughout the index to this edition of The Papers of Carlos Montezuma, papers not filmed at this time are listed either with a single asterisk (*), indicating documents controlled by Leon Summit, or a double asterisk (**), designating items in the hands of Frank Novak, Jr. Once items for study are identified in the index or, if not indexed, from the arrangement description, consult the Reel List to determine locations of the desired documents in the actual fi1m.

Several observations should be made about the arranging and indexing of correspondence. All items are ordered chronologically. Those of uncertain day, month or year are placed at the head of the first possible time unit under which they might be grouped. Enclo­sures, when possible, appear with their cover letters. Where a letter to or from Montezuma was itself an enclosure, the document target will identify the cover letter, if known. Item 23, “Correspondence -- Others,” provides access to stray covers, enclosures and other non-Montezuma correspondence in the doctor’s files.

Carlos Montezuma takes precedence in all arrangement and index decisions. Thus, exchanges between Montezuma and his wife or attor­ney are placed and indexed in The Papers of Car1os Montezuma. Exchanges Mari a Montezuma or Joseph W. Latimer shared with other parties only are placed and indexed, respectively, in the two auxiliary collections.

Readers should check Wassaja and Joseph Latimer's publications for additional correspondence. However, letters appearing in other publications have been included in the correspondence section, with sources noted, of course. In some cases, the enclosures were major published reports and other hefty items. Due to cost of photo reproduction and general availability of such items, they are not included in this edition. Letters sent or received by a number of parties are indexed under all names.

Envelopes are filmed only when they contain notes. When the notes on envelopes bear directly upon the subject of the enclosed letter, the envelope is filmed with the letter. Otherwise, the envelope is included in group 10, “Notes.” Sometimes, a letter will quote extensively another letter. When Montezuma is a party to such a quoted letter, it is indexed separately.

Correspondence is indexed by surname when known. Sometimes, first names or titles must suffice. Native Americans are not indexed by tribal names. Specialists already know these names; non-specialists will most likely first learn of these people through their “white names.” Tribal, corporate and other organizational affiliations can be gleaned from the documents themselves, as can places where correspondents resided. Montezuma’s pen pals were a horizontally and vertically peripatetic lot; indexing their incarnations would be a massive chore. The designation “e” following an· item means that it contains an enclosure which has been filmed. Otherwise, enclosures deftly defying recovery searches are mentioned only in the text of their cover letters. Non-correspondence document groups in the index are item lists showing the arrangement found in the microfilm.



                                                       Roll No.

 1.   Correspondence, 1887-1926, undated                              1-5

 2.   Wassaja, 1916-1922                                           5

 3.   Essays, Speeches and Testimony, 1882-1922, undated                 5-7  

 4.   Bureau of Investigation, Carlos Montezuma Case File, 1917-1919         7

 5.   Plays, 1920-1922                                             7

 6.   Poetry, 1911, undated                                          7

 7.   Carlos Montezuma Quoting Others, 1913, undated                     7

 8.   Carlos Montezuma Quoted, 1882-1926, undated                      7

 9.   Aphorisms, undated                                            7

 10.  Notes, undated                                               7-8

 11.  Fragments, undated                                            8

 12.  General Medical, 1891-1915, undated                              8

 13.  Medical Notebooks, 1886-1904, undated                           8

 14.  Medical Case Notes, 1910-1921, undated                           8

 15.  Medical Prescriptions, 1904-1922, undated                          8

 16.  Medical Fragments, 1905-1913, undated                            8

 17.  Financial Records, 1892-1922, undated                             8

 18.  Lists and Roster’s, 1880-1920, undated                             8

 19.  Affidavits, Applications. Certificates and forms, 1882-1921, undated       8

 20.  Miscellaneous, 1894-1921, undated                                8

 21.  Iconographic Materials, 1871-1921                               8

 22.  Society of American Indians Materials, 1911-1923, undated              8

 23.   Others -- Correspondence, 1895-1925, undated                      8

 24.  Others -- Government Documents, 1884-1914, undated                8

 25.  Others -- Essays and Speeches, 1905-1922, undated                   9

 26.  Others -- Miscellaneous, 1904-1918, undated                        9

 27.  Others -- Poetry, 1921, undated                                  9

 28.  Others -- Notes, 1952, undated                                   9

 29.  Others -- Newspaper Items, 1916-1920                            9

 30.  Others -- Fragments, 1919-1922, undated                           9

 31.  Others -- Iconographic Materials, undated                           9



 1.   Correspondence, 1910-1952                                     9

 2.   Financial Materials, 1912-1952                                   9

 3.   Miscellaneous, 1913, undated                                    9



 1.   Correspondence, 1911-1934                                     9

 2.   Addresses, Articles and Publications, 1913-1932                     9

 3.   Miscellaneous, 1911-1929, undated                                9



 AzHS        --  Arizona Historical Society, Tucson, AZ

 AzMu        --  Arizona Museum, Phoenix, AZ

 ASLA        --  Arizona State Library and Archives, Phoenix, AZ

 ASU         --  Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ; Hayden Library, Arizona Collection

 CHS        --  Chicago Historical Society, Chicago, IL

 ChPL        --  Chicago Public Library, Mandel Building, Chicago, IL

Clark         --  Neil M. Clark, Santa Fe, NM

CCHS        --  Cumberland County Historical Society, Carlisle, PA

CIS          --  Congressional Information Service, Bethesda, MD

FARC-Sea    --  Federal Archives Records Center, Seattle, WA

GRPL        --  Grand Rapids Public Library, Grand Rapids, MI

HUTL        --  Harvard University, Tozzer Library, Cambridge, MA

HCQC       --  Haverford College Library, Haverford, PA

HSP         --  Historical Society of Pennsylvania

HEH         --  Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, CA

KaHS        --  Kansas Historical Society, Topeka, KS

KC          --  Knox College Library, Galesburg, IL

LCMs        --  Library of Congress, Manuscripts Division, Washington, DC

LCPer        --  Library of Congress, Periodicals Division, Washington, DC

NARS        --  National Archives, Washington, DC

NvHS        --  Nevada Historical Society, Reno, NV

NYPL        --  New York Public Library, New York, NY

NL          --  Newberry Library, Chicago, IL

Novak        --  Frank D. Novak, Jr., Harvey, IL

NYSM       --  New York State Museum, Albany, NY

OHS         --  Ohio Historical Society, Columbus, OH

Opler        --  Morris Opler, Norman, OK

PPHM       --  Panhandle-Plains Historical Museum, Canyon, TX

SI / BAE      --  Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, National Anthropological Archives, Washington, DC

SHSW       --  State Historical Society of Wisconsin Madison, WI

SWMu       --  Southwest Museum, Los Angeles, CA

LS           --  Leon Summit, Merrick, Long Island, NY

LSmf         --  Leon Summit Microfilm of the Richard J. Dahlman Montezuma Collection, Huntsville, AL

Steiner        --  Stan Steiner, Santa Fe, NM

TPP         --  The Temperance and Prohibition Papers Microfilm Project, National Historical Publications and Records Commission

TNSLA       --  Tennessee State Library and Archives, Nashville, TN

UA          --  University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ

UC-B        --  University of California at Berkeley, Bancroft Library, Berkeley, CA

UIL          --  University of Illinois Library, University Archives, Urbana, IL

UOR         --  University of Oregon Library, Eugene, OR

URoch       --  University of Rochester Library, Rochester, NY

USAMH      --  United States Army Military History Institute, Carlisle Barracks, Carlisle, PA

USNY       --  University of the State of New York, New York State Museum, Albany, NY

WSU        --  Washington State University, Pullman, WA

YB          --  Yale University, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, New Haven, CT



ABF          --   Albert B. Fall

AAB         --   August A. Breuninger

ACP         --   Arthur C. Parker

CAE         --   Charles A. Eastman

CEO         --   Charles E. Dagenett

CHB         --   Charles H. Burke

CM          --   Carlos Montezuma

CS           --   Cato Sells

EBM         --   Edgar B. Merrit

FAM         --   Fayette Avery McKenzie

FKL          --   Franklin K. Lane

GO          --   George Dickens

GSB          --   Gertrude Simmons Bonnin

HPG         --   Helen Pierce Grey

HSB          --   Henry Standing Bear

IRA          --   Indian Rights Association

JWL          --   Joseph W. Latimer

LVM         --   Lucullus Virgil McWhorter

MCK         --   Melville Clyde Kelly

MKS         --   Matthew K. Sniffen

MM         --  Maria Keller Montezuma Moore

PGB         --  Philip B. Gordon       

RFS         --  Red Fox Skiuhushu

RHP         --  Richard Henry Pratt

SAI          --  Society of American Indians

TGB         --  Thomas G. Bishop

TLS         --  Thomas L. Sloan

WGH        --  Warren G. Harding          

WTM        --  William T. Moore           

WWC        --  Bonita WaWa Calachaw Nunez

[1] Mrs. William T. Moore to W. C. Barnes, 26 October 1934, Will C. Barnes Collection, Arizona Historical Society

[2] Will C. Barnes to Elmer C. Stauffer, 23 March 1936, "Carlos Montezuma file, Elmo Scott Watson Collection, Newberry Library.

[3] Mrs. Harold H. Royalty-Mrs. William T. Moore, 23 January, 1935, Carlos Montezuma biographical file M781, Arizona Historical Society.


The above is the end of the initial matter in the Scholarly Resources printed guide to this collection.  Click here to view the guide as a whole, including the index to the contents of the microfilm collection, in a key-word searchable PDF file in Adobe Photoshop (the URL is http://swcenter.fortlewis.edu/finding_aids/inventory/MontezMflmGuide.pdf ).  Due to changes and compaction in formatting the electronic version, the original printed guide is 117 pages but the guide in PDF format contains the same content in 105 pages.

Doing your own research: This description of this microfilm collection is provided to inform interested parties about the nature and depth of the repository's collections.  It cannot serve as a substitute for a visit to the repository for those with substantial research interests in the collections.

This collection is located at the Center of Southwest Studies on the campus of Fort Lewis College.  These microfilms do not check out from the Center; you may find them available at other sources around the country; ours is just one of many copies.  Researchers wanting more information about using this material at the Delaney Southwest Research Library at the Center may email the archivist at archives@fortlewis.edu or click here to use our E-mail Reference Request Form (or phone the archivist at 970/247-7126).  The Center does not have a budget for outgoing long-distance phone calls to answer reference requests, so please email if you wish to receive a response from the Center.  To request reproductions/copies, click here for instructions.

Page last modified: January 18, 2008