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Theodore Hetzel field notebooks contents list, part 1:
Notebooks [0] through [14],

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Biographical note

Overview of the notebooks

Center of Southwest Studies collection inventories

Hetzel travel summary

1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969
1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 - - - - 1985
Notebook [0]: 1954-1955: Oklahoma and Papago Notebook #[1]:
August 1956:
trip to South Dakota, etc.
Notebook #[2]:
Notebook #1: June-August 1958:
Tucson workcamp
Notebook #[3]:
August 1958-May 1959:
Fort Berthold
Notebook #[4]:
June-August 1959:
Taos, Ft. Hall, N. Cheyenne
Notebook #[5]:
August 1959- July 1960:
Hopi hearings
Notebook #[6]: July 1960-March 1961: Seneca, Catawba, Cherokee, Penobscot, Passamaquoddy, St. Regis, Onondiaga, Arrow, Army Corps of Engineers

Notebook #[7]:
March-June 1961: Haverford (PA.) Indian Conference

Notebook #[8]:
1961: Alaska 
Notebook #[9]: August 1961-1962: Seneca Allegany, Midwater ceremony Notebook #[10]:
June-August 1962: Alaska
Notebook #[11]:
September 1962-May 1963: Alaska
Notebook #[12]:
June 1963: Alaska, Flathead, North Cheyenne, Seattle
Notebook #[13]:
July 1963-May 1964:
Indian Hannah
Notebook #[14]: May-September 1964: Hopi, American Indian Capitol Conference on Poverty, IRA, BIA Superintendents Conference, ASEE, NFIW, Utes, California, Papago, Hopi, Pueblos, Navajo, etc., Hatchongva and Banyacya, Russ Stetler hearing
 [no Notebook #15] Notebook  #[16]:
June 1965 -May 1966: Dillon (MT) workshop, Dr. Feathers, Ft. Hall
Notebook # [17]:
June 1966-July 28, 1967: Tuscarora, Passamaquoddy, Turtle Mountain
Notebook  #[18]:
August 1967-July 1968: Seneca, Tonawanda, Oklahoma Cherokee
Notebook  #[19]: October 1968-July 1969: Spearfish (SD), Wyoming, Montana Notebook  #[20]:
December 1972-May 1976 : Indian Rights Association (IRA) meetings minutes
Notebook  #[21]:
August 1970-March 1
Notebook  #[22]: March 1972-December 8, 1972: Florida, Cherokee, LaDonna Harris, Tuscarora,  Colorado, California, Nevada, Eastern Indian Conference Notebook  #[23]:
December 8, 1972-April 1973
(continued from Notebook #[22])
Notebook  #[24]:
April 24-December 1973
Notebook  #[25]: December 1973-November 1974 Notebook  #[26]:
November 18, 1974-December 1, 1975
Notebook  #[27]: October 1975-March  1977 Notebook  #[28]:
March 1977-November 1980, and April 1985
Notebook #[29]: June 1976: Indian Rights Association Board of Directors minutes

Overview of the Hetzel notebooks

This collection consists of thirty notebooks maintained by Theodore Hetzel.  The notebooks are primarily travel journals, which describe notes from various meetings that Hetzel went to during the years of 1954 and 1985.  The hundreds of pages of this guide are a summary of the topics that Dr. Hetzel mentioned in his notebooks.  We have included some direct quotes from his entries to give the researcher a better notion of what is contained in the notebooks.  They serve as a wonderfully helpful connection to Hetzel’s audiotapes, photographs, and papers held at the Center of Southwest Studies.  These three collections complement each other, as is demonstrated by the way in which he describes each of those types of records in his journals.  For instance, his journal entries describe people he met and photographed.

Theodore Hetzel traveled all over the United States.  A resident of the Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) area, he traveled to New York, Maryland, North Carolina, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, North Dakota, Idaho, Washington, California, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Illinois, as well as Washington, D.C.  He attended various meetings nationwide, especially those of the Indian Rights Association (I.R.A.).  A Quaker, he also attended many meetings of the American Friends of the Indians.  Other organizations he mentions include the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), TBH, AFSC (American Friends Service Committee), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), AEC, NMCA, the Council of Indian Affairs (C.I.A.), and the TLE.

Dr. Hetzel’s notes mainly describe issues concerning Native American tribes in the United States and their interactions with the United States government, Ango Americans and Anglo culture.  The issues he described are multi-faceted.  A short list of topics discussed would include: the ‘Indian Problem,’ AFSC workcamps, the Seneca Nation, land rights, maintaining culture, religion, tradition, welfare, the Papago Reservation, boarding schools, Pine Ridge, tribal control, industries, the economy, the future, Rosebud Reservation, treaties, the Oglala Sioux Council, the reservation system, assimilation, housing, checkerboarding of the land, education, medical care, relocation, funding, public health, Indian law, and acculturation.

Theodore Hetzel wrote about these topics in terms of his dominant concerns about the interactions and treatment between Native Americans and the White Man.  Hetzel summarizes many different people’s points of views concerning these topics and how they were impacting the country at that time.  Some of Hetzel’s journal entries contain his initial responses to people’s comments while at the same time he was tape recording them.  These issues are important to research, study and acknowledge because of their impact on the history and current situation of the United States.

Note: Some entries are not in chronological order in the notebooks; data has been entered as in the notebooks.  Note about committee names and people’s names: some writing was indistinguishable and was interpreted through other journal entries; some inconsistencies may occur.

There is no Notebook #[15] in the Theodore Hetzel collection.  It is, however, referred to in Notebook #[16] under the entry for 1965 Aug. 27, and is also referred to in Notebook #[17] under the entry for 1966 Nov. 4, 5.

Travel summary: Stefanie Hetzel Johnston, one of Dr. Hetzel's daughters, has noted that the family newsletters give travel outlines for each year in review and that they state the following (presented here with her consent 9/11/2006):

1956:   South Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, etc., and to ten Indian Reservations including those at Rosebud and Pine Ridge.

1959:   Arizona, Montana, New York visiting more than 70 Indian communities, speaking to well over 100 Indians and others about Indian Affairs (report on Indian Truth, vol. 36, number 3)

:   Seattle and Alaska (Metlakatla, Ketchikan, Sitka,, Juneau, Hoonah, Anchorage, Fairbanks, College, Northway and Tetlin, Ft. Yukon, Barrow, Kotzebue, Nome, Unalakleet, Alakanuk, Bethel, Kalskag, Tyonek, English Bay, and Seldovia.  On the way home Ted visited the Northern Cheyenne reservation in Montana and the Ft. Berthold reservation in North Dakota.
1962:   Tanana, Alaska to meet with Athabascan chiefs and representatives of Indian  villages of the interior.  Then California and many Indian places from there visiting Navajo, Mountain Ute, Southern Ute, Zia, Santa Ana, Taos, Tesuque, Pine Ridge, Cheyenne River, Rosebud and Tama.
1963:   3rd trip to Alaska for the Indian Rights Association Dr. Hetzel visited villages of Chalkyitsik,and Minto and Tanana.  On the way home he visited the Flathead reservation at Billings, Montana and the Crow and Northern Cheyenne reservations.
1964:   Estes Park for the National Fellowship of Indian Workers Conference, and visited various Indians in the Southwest and a Bureau of Indian Affairs conference in Santa Fe in June and again in September.
1965:   To Dillon, Montana, to speak at the summer institute for teachers of American Indians, then to Washington to visit the Colville (Salish) Indians, then to Idaho to visit the Nez Perce and Bannock-Shoshone Indians.  Ted was principal speaker at the annual Niagara Falls Border Crossing Celebration of Indians of N.Y. and Canada. Later in the summer he visited Indians in Maine, R.I. and N.Y.
1966:   Montana to lecture at summer school for teachers of Indians and to visit the Wind River reservation in Wyoming..  He visited four Sioux reservations in South Dakota, Ft. Totten and and Turtle Mountain in North Dakota.  On the way home he visited Indians in New York, Ontario and Maine.  The Hetzels visited 30 Indian places this summer.
1967:   To Seattle and around the Olympic Peninsula, then east across Washington, and visiting the Rocky Boys reservation in Montana.  Then to Michigan and into Canada.  The Hetzels visited 24 reservations on this trip of nearly 10,000 miles, plus four other Indian centers.
1968:   Visiting Indian places and interviewing key people in Eastern and Central Oklahoma, met with the Governor and Councilmen of Taos Pueblo to discuss efforts to recover their Blue Lake area, University of Colorado for the workshop on American Indian Affairs, visited the Pine Ridge and Rosebud Sioux reservations, the Masquakie (Sac and Fox) Indian Community (report and photos in Indian Truth, vol. 45, number 2).
1969:   Two trips to the Onondaga Indians.  The Hetzels visited 20 Indian reservations from Michigan to Montana.  In Menomonee, Wisconsin and Spearfish, South Dakota, they visited summer workshops for Indian college students.
1970:   The Hetzels traveled for five weeks to some 25 Indian communities to as far west as Flagstaff, Arizona and Colorado. Ted gave presentations on radio twice, TV  twice, and talks to 35 different groups.
1971:   Nova Scotia, Quebec, and Montreal, visiting Caughnawaga and Indian communities in Bay of Quinte, St. Regis, Cornwall Island, Tama, Omaha, Winnebago, Santee Yankton Rosebud, and Pine Ridge Sioux.  The Hetzels then visited Mountain Utes and Jicarilla Apaches, Shiprock, the Gallup ceremonial, Acoma, Cochita, and then Taos Pueblo for the celebration of the return of their sacred Blue Lake and surrounding land.  They visited 40 Indian places, most with interviews with tribal and government officials or their representatives. 11,500 miles of travel in 52 days.
1972:   To Florida in March, visiting the principal Indian communities and schools there, and to Cherokee and Lumbee communities in North Carolina.  Four trips at different times took in all of the  Iroquois reservations in New York.  In July, Ted was principal speaker at the 45th annual Border Crossing Celebration of the Indian Defence League of America, and was formally adopted again.  Three trips to Washington conferences included contacts with Powhatten Indians (reports of such activities for the Indian Rights Assoc. are published in Indian Truth). In September, to Navajo country and Navajo Community College, Hopi area and Oraibi Payson Apache Community (now a reservation).  The Hetzels continued their travels to Indian places, D.Q. University and San Francisco.  On the way home, they visited the Pyramid Lake Paiute reservation.  They arrived home just in time for the Haverford Corporation meeting and the presentation of a "Haverford Award" to Ted.
1973:   Visits to Washington, DC several times for congressional hearings concerning Wounded Knee and Indian problems, and visits to various Indian places from South Carolina to Ontario.  Summer travel to Colorado and California with visits to 17 Indian reservations, 5 Indian colleges, 5 schools, some Head Start programs and Indian enterprises, and interviews with the people in charge at those places.  Ted went to the Convention of the National Congress of American Indians in Tulsa, Oklahoma.
1974:   Visits to Iroquois reservations, Niagara Falls for the Annual Border Crossing Celebration, and a visit with the White Roots of Peace Mohawks.  The Hetzels visited Ganienkeh where the Mohawk occupy land they claim in the Adirondack Forest Preserve near Eagle Bay, New York.
1975:   Visited Seneca Indians and went to Niagra Falls for the Border Crossing Ceremony.  Ted gave his course on Native Americans at Pendle Hill Quaker Center.
1976:   Trip to Colorado and visiting Rosebud and Pine Ridge reservations, Ft. Laramie, and Haskell Indian Junior College en route.
1977:   Ted and his wife Becky moved to Crosslands Retirement Community at Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, and did not make any more trips to the southwest to visit Indians, though Ted continued giving talks, and writing about Indians.  He continued to be active with the Indian Rights Assoc. and the Friends Indian Committee. 

Theodore Hetzel field notebooks contents list

Notebooks [0] through [14],

Covering the years 1954-1964

Notebook #[0]: 1954-1955: Oklahoma and Papago






Bunch workshop, D’Arcy McNickle

No date

Sallisan, OK

Introductions to workshop speakers?

1954 July 14

Adair County, OK

Mrs. Paget, public health nurse, Bunch united grade school. Public health prevention, TB symptoms, whooping cough, diphtheria, births.

1954 July 14

Adair County, OK

National Congress of American Indians, American Indian development. Sanitation.

1954 July 14

Adair County, OK

Mrs. Day-trip to North Carolina. Graduation at Cherokee school. Community development, Cherokee Indian communities clubs, working on houses, danger of outsiders overrunning the Indians.

1954 July 14

Adair County, OK

Dick Chukulate’s comments about the same trip to NC. Eastern Cherokee are friendly, land allotments.

1954 July 14

Adair County, OK

Mrs. Olen, author of “Into these hills,” interested in drama to the end of this story.  Sequel visit to cherry tree Baptist church.

1954 July 15

Adair County, OK

Film on health shown by Mr. Howe, talk by D’Arcy about A. D., work Indians can do to help themselves, Mrs. Elizabeth Roe-Cloud (Chippewa) talked about men getting education, community development, housing development, growth and welfare of the people, scholarships, sanitation, need for nurses.

1954 July 17

Northeast OK

Roy Tompkins, OK A & M, director division college extension, Shawnee Brown, state director extension service, Stillwater. Cherokee (Sequoyah Indian) Weavers need advice on marketing. Other names mentioned: Mrs. Alice Olen, Mrs. Wynona S. Day, Mrs. (M. J.) Susie Burton.

1954 July 19

Jay OK courthouse

D’Arcy McNickle, Mrs. Alice Olen, Mrs. Elizabeth Roe Cloud, Mrs. Agnes Huckleberry, Dick Chuculate. McNickle-sources of funds, AFSC workcamp (Crownpoint), community clubs, local churches, Home Improvement Committee, rent rates, land allotments. Planning on the Navajo-Hopi Indian reservations, Navajo tribal organization, committees, administration, coordinator for tribal enterprises. U. S. dept. of the interior Indian field service, chief branch of extension-Howard F. Johnson. Resources on file at Window Rock area office including info about geologic investigations, resources of the Navajo-Hopi Indian reservations, USGS, AEC, university and state colleges of AZ, NM school of mines. Navajo long-range program of n. rehabilitation, state agencies, BIU of Arizona, mineral resources of the Navajo-Hopi reservations, pinyon pitch.

1955 June 18

Tucson, AZ

Physical geology, field guide to geology, Vincent Kelly, geologist.

1955 June 18

Las Vegas, NM

Dr. Stillinger, Mr. Lee Griffin, Janet B. H., Bob Westlake, Betsy, Pat, Dick Martin, Max(Janet’s roommate), John Stratton, Ken Topper, Art Todd

1955 June 18

Santa Fe, NM

Brinton Turkle, Ranchos de Taos: Peggy Pond(Mrs. Fernser/church)

1955 June 18

Las Vegas, NM

Larry and Birnsi Kirkpatrick, Elmer and Lois Brown, AFSC Reace, Ruth Raymond, addresses

1955 June 18

Santa Fe, NM

Mrs. Helen Feldkamp, Anna C. Huff, Mrs. David McComb, Mrs. Lippincott, director of museum int. of folk art, Alice Howland, Eleanor Brownell, Bishop’s Mtn., Chas E. Minton, Steff, Marron Hall UNM, Crownpoint hospital, Lewis Korn, oil news, AEC, Dr. Art Warner addresses

1955 June 22


Phone call from Totsi, shamah and Negro community, Lewis Korn: Carson Ryan, Jr., saccaton, Burt Robinson, former supt. princ., has written on Indain pottery, ect., Chas Minton, NM assoc. Indian affairs, Bob Roessel; Penna Turnpike; Bob and Anne O’Brien-just married and head for Cuapiaxtla, unidad de servicio de los amigos, Estado de Tlascola, Mexico

1955 June 23

Santa Fe, NM

Crownpoint workcamp orientation, Edward Bing, Soy de Muyser, David David, Ben Blum, Frances Paton, Serda Mahn, Susan Quibell, Tirzal Silberstein, Duane Parker, Neill Payne Jackie, Barbara Rusch, Carol Hollingsworth, Evelyn James, Jane de Chant, John Getman, Kennteh MacIntosh, Jacquile Grey, Mary Acord, Bob and Martha Warner, Bob Roessel Jr.(Ruth), John Sanford, Viola Pfrommer, Darcy McNickle, Charles Minton, NM assoc. on Indian affairs, Duncan Brooks

1955 June 23

Santa Fe, NM

Supper, Olive Rush and Dorothy Stewart, garden or studio

1955 June 24

Santa Fe, NM

Museum Romeno board room, San Juan, supper at museum, moose

1955 June 25

Santa Fe, NM

Meditation-museum, AFSC, NCAI, Indian leaders meeting, dinner at Lyons, unprogrammed-Adair Pfrommer McNickle, photo of San Juan boy: Tobe Montoya-back of the store-San Juan Pueblo

1955 June 24


Charles Minton-‘white race is on trial before the world,’ ‘what a man sows, he will also reap,’ ‘only by example can we help change,’1540- Coronado sold land conversions, Onato first colony, Santo Domingo, just north of San Juan, San Juan dance today a prayer for corn, 19 pueblos: all here before Spaniards except Laguna, 1680-Pone-Sane Juan Indian from Taos, 1692-reconquest, 1821-Pueblos citizens of Mexico, 1846-Guadelupe Hidalgo, US reservations est., Alottments-160 acres/family, 1934-reorganization-Wheeler Howard bill-tribal title to, 1922-NM assoc. on Indian affairs, Burson bill defeated(to give white squatters land rights), Malone bills to liquidate reservations, memory of great walk, Utes fought Navajos, Navajo have lived up to treaty of 1868, we have not until now, NM-1912, 5 subagencies being set up now, Hopi make dance-serpent wisdom ancient, Frank Waters-old men with moss on their faces, sat there and say, “No, no, no, no,” effect of experience in army, D. H. Lawrence song, religious leader Cosiki, Paul Jones, Scott Preston, public law 280, senate bill 51 to amend 280, article 21, sect. 2,-NM constitution disclaimer, Indians citizens since 1924, most were not, 47,000 Indians total-NM, 100,000 AZ

1955 June 24


Bob Roessel Jr., was at Crownpoint teaching, MA in anthropology, anthropologists extract, but better is that of sharing, N. or Bosque Redondo concentration camp, stock reduction, remember the past before judging it, don’t expect too much too soon, other guidelines on how to treat and get along with Indians; checkerboarding of the land, authority, Round Rock, Billy Bicente-councilman, religion, 1920-Lorenzo Hubbell-one of Indians’ best friends, Navajo mountain chant, Mrs. Armer and Mr. Hubbell

1955 June 25


D’Arcy McNickle, John Marshall-Indian tribes, domestic nations, self-governing, internal affairs their business, not the vanishing race now, population in 1880-225,000, now 400,000, increase due to improved medical care, assimilation, Hopi are waiting for whites to disappear, government philosophy of abolishing of Indian differentness, BIA philosophy, money spending, 1924-NCAI formed, AID program, health program, education, orientation of 1954-Navajo leaders from Crownpoint invited-1 showed up, chapter houses in 20s formed o support the tribal council, chapters role for election of council, n. development committee, V. Pfromver-5 gallons mesquite honey, sheep manure, soft drink, sewing, herbs, sage, Ph. D. pharmacist, NMAIA conference of Indian leaders-senate bill 51, public law 280, recreation, Navajo tribal council, Colorado river project, Ted Hall-asst. area dir. for recreation, Ned Hatathli, Indian arts and crafts, Chester Faris, grazing, Hopi rehabilitation act, farming, Colorado river in Navajo project, fulfillment of 1868 treaty provisions.

1955 June 26


Dr. John Adair at Dorothy Stewart’s studio, Navajo culture, Navajo’s recovering from injury inflicted by the whites, 1863 marched to Ft. Sumner as POW for 5 yrs., Long Walk, Fruitland Cornell study of relocation project, irrigation, stock reduction, matrilocal polygamy, family structure, clan structure, naming, cutting of the hair, trade and credit, religion-conflict between native religion and Christianity, squaw dance, night chant, diet, Pueblo religion focused on fertility, politics, chants, 8 taboos, Franc Newcomb, Golden rules for social behavior, control, language, loose handshake, gambling, smoking, drinking, Black Mesa-primitive, land status map-topographic, Dr. Eldred Wilson

1955 June 29

Sells, AZ

Juan and Dottie Pasco, Barbara Mendez, Frank Stein, Henry A. Throssell

1955 June 30

Tucson, AZ

Shopping in Tucson, bought household supplies

1955 July 1

Tucson, AZ

Juan introduced me to superintendent of agency, Albert M. Hawley, other office workers, physical work, Mormon missionary came to town

1955 July 2

Sells, AZ

Working at house.

1955 July 3

Sells, AZ

Went to Presbyterian Church, Pastor Elmer Wellington, excellent sermon, met Ruiz Lopez who owns silver mine, went to his mine.

1955 July 4

Sells, AZ

Went to see new well, drove in desert, went to Cowlic-town with 6 families, Catholic Church, and a school.

1955 July 5

Sells, AZ

Went shopping in Tucson, household supplies, food, etc., went to visit San Xavier del Bac mission, the Pascoes were home.

1955 July 6

Sells, AZ

Went with Juan Pascoe, Messro Hawley, Nolan, Marc Manuel to Vamoria, Jose Marie Hendricks were dissatisfied with the William Dunlaps treatment in starting the charcoal burning business.  Readjusted problems, visit tribal headquarters, Pascoes visited in the evening, two Mormon elders, Delmer Hamblin and Reed Wyatt visited and gave talk about Mormon, discuss religion.

1955 July 7

Sells, AZ

Paid bills, went south of Sells, climbed Cholla, attended Credit Union meeting, talked with Henry Throssel, Puma and Papago Indian Agriculture, by Castetter and Bill, NM, Indian Oasis, Caxton, Caldwell, ID.

1955 July 8

Sells, AZ

H and J make a trip to Green Mine, bibliographic material from Pascoe, Investigations on the Papago Reservation, Cornell Univ. dept. of sociology and anthropology, Indians of the SW, Papago Development Program-1949, San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation-1954, Indian health in AZ-UA-1954, planned for trip to Mexico, Albert Noriego arrived.

1955 July 9

Sells, AZ

Delayed in departure, drove to Tucson, picked up Henry and son Allen Throssel, and Jose Ventura-Governor of Papago in Sonora Mexico. Visited saddle makers in Mazdalena, went to Santa Ana to arrange for defense of Papagos, saw church and Papago shrine, figure of St. Francis, returned to Sells.

1955 July 10

Sells, AZ

Went to church and read, Ella Jose’s birthday party.

1955 July 11

Sells, AZ

Drove to Tucson, visited Arizona Sonora Desert Museum, talked business with Mr. A. J. Hoga, picked up Juan at home of John Salyer, met with the Papago Self-Help Program Committee, Scorge Norris Chairman, Juan Mathias, Archie Hendricks, Louis Harvey, Barbara Mendez, Lopita Johnson, agreed that I should start up a butchershop, Ramadas, baskets, charcoal, grass fire where the tribal herd was kept, fire was put out.

1955 July 12

Sells, AZ

Juan and I left for Phoenix, en route at Santa Rosa-“children’s cemetery,” Alihihiani, numerous mines, supper at Charles F. and Laura Gritzner’s house, meeting of the Central Arizona Indian committee, YMCA, Phoenix, Ft. McDowell Indian Reservation, employment of Indians, Indian center in Phoenix, AFL union won’t take application of Apache, Puma cement finisher, other needs, Juan Pascoe-things Tucson has done and learned, civic organizations, opportunity for activity, drove back to Mesa.

1955 July 13

Sells, AZ

Phoned Carmen Moran Broz, lunch with Harry Schulz, pres of Acme Charcoal Corp., Mr. Eugene Turley-secretary/treasurer, Rasmussen-field manager at Caliente, near Sentinel, recommendations for laying concrete, visited Beardsley Braham of Stanford Research Institute, member of advisory committee to San Carlos Apache Indians, returned to Gritzners, Copper State Chemical Co, Papago progress, New Trail 1941 revised 1953, Phoenix Indian School, Phoenix, AZ.

1955 July 14

Sells, AZ

Meeting of Credit Union Boarch.

1955 July 15

Sells, AZ

Went to see Mr. Jones, let Johnson Antone have our horse, treatment of wood against termites, saw Mr. Hobbs, sanitarian about rules for butcher shop, went to UA library, took a Anscochrome films to Color Classics, did shopping.

1955 July 16

Sells, AZ

Talked to Juan, Ruiz Lopez, got mail, drove to Santa Rosa, discovered pictographs of rocks north of “Children’s Cemetery,” Ventana Cave, visised Children’s Cemetery, big party at Sells.

1955 July 17

Sells, AZ

Went to Presbyterian Church, Elmer Wellington preached, visited Mrs. Manuel, took Ruiz Lopez to see his father-in-law.

1955 July 18

Sells, AZ

“Rim of Christendom,” Bolton, and “Desert People,” Chesky from school library, drove to Vamori to look at progress of charcoal project, talked to Richard Hendricks, photographed Joseph Martin’s new ramada, and Jose Marie Hendricks’ ramada also, plumbers came to fix drains, letter from NYO offers to send plans for solar cooker, talked to Mr. Alden Jones, administrative officer of Agency, info about Indian service.

1955 July 19

Sells, AZ

Tried to photograph rocks, Mormons came again, gave another lesson.

1955 July 20

Sells, AZ

Joseph Bailey, Juan and I went to Pisimemo to talk about idea of making charcoal in parts for Acme, talked to Antonio Garcia, Lopez, Padre of Catholic church not home, drove to Santa Rosa, Mr. Harris principal, went and saw the rain washes by Children’s Cemetery, went to Pascoes for dinner, Bill Carlson, fed. Inspector of Credit Unions from Phoenix, George Esquival and assist. Bob Pablo came in the morning to talk about slaughterhouse.

1955 July 21

Sells, AZ

Went to Big Felds with Pascoes, saw old fashioned ‘round house’ of council, Dr. Bouclaire, took photos under the ramada, Mrs. Mary Stevens willing to have photo taken of basket weaving, Mrs. Ignacio makes ollas, took trip to roads to Ajo and found groups of pictographs on rocks, plans for boys to go prospecting with George Norris.

1955 July 22

Sells, AZ

Juan, Joe Bailey and I drove to Pisinemo, picked up Chief Carlos Lopez, brother and Joe Vazquez, drove to Ajo, Gila bend, Sentinel to Agua Caliente, met Harry W. Schultz of Acine, Ralph Sailer in charge of work in Mesquite, production manager is Rasmussen, Eugene Turley, needs and progress for building, sketches.

1955 July 23

Sells, AZ

Went to Tucson, got roofing supplies, went to UA library and museum, shopping, saw Mr. Hawley, bridge had burned in April or May, access to Sells cut off due to wash flooding.

1955 July 24

Sells, AZ

Looked at washes on both sides of town.

1955 July 25

Sells, AZ

Helping Juan with roofing on his house, Frank Stein, Becky and I tried to get to Fresnal to see a woman to get pictures of basketmaking, but did not because of fear of getting stuck in mud.

1955 July 26

Sells, AZ

Went to Tucson, visited AZ Frontier Museum, AZ State Museum, Mrs. John Tanner runs Desert House gift shop, Dr. WS Phillips in botany, Dean Willis R. Brewere of pharmacy, Horace S. Haskell botanist with Indian Service, geology project, author of “Pinyon Resources,” Navajo

1955 July 27

Sells, AZ

Frank Stein, Dottie P, Becky and I went to Big Fields, took pictures of Mary Stevens making baskets, pictures of Sarah Sacramento, went to Fresnal, told of wine dance (Tiswin) to be held in Little Tucson, went out to the dance later that night, saw figures of medicine men and other, dancing, talked about the dance.

1955 July 28

Sells, AZ

Went to Pascoes, followed Ricardo Manual’s family, 18 miles from Sells, David and Sophie Saraficio, showed baskets, drawings, descriptions, took photos, talk with Mrs. Russell, welfare officer.

1955 July 29

Sells, AZ

Phoenix, AZ

AZ Commission on Indian Affairs, drove to Phoenix with Mark Manuel and Juan P., chairman Sam Thomas, names of other present are listed, Papago Rehabilitation-issues, discussion, competency criteria, leasing of restricted lands, tribal control, churches roles, Public Health took over health services, new regulations, assimilation, consultations, relocations, drilling wells on reservation, returned to Sells.

1955 July 30

Sells, AZ

Wash not running with rain water, photos of various baskets, worked on report and expense account.

1955 July 31

Sells, AZ

Attended Catholic Church.

1955 Aug. 1

Sells, AZ

Talked to Mrs. Ruth Jones, she is working on panels describing history, ect. of Panagueria, got out books Peco Bill, Fighting Indians, tried to go to Vamori-wash was running over the road.

1955 Aug. 2

Sells, AZ

Tucson, AZ

George Norris, Juan and I drove to Tucson, met Mark Manuel, meeting of Assoc. for Papago Affairs, names of some of those who were present, returned to Sells, heavy rain.

1955 Aug. 3

Sells, AZ

Trip to Big Fields, bought baskets, found that Mrs. Miguel had gone to Gila Bend, met her daughter, Juan, Mr. Hawley, and I went to Vamori, saw kiln, talked to Joe Martin.

1955 Aug. 4

Sells, AZ

Tucson, AZ

Went to Tucson, at art museum in office of Mrs. Tanner, I looked at MS thesis of Margaret Shreve on Modern Papago basketry, and monograph in anthropological papers of the American Museum of Natural History-1916, Mary Lois Kissell on basketry of the Papago and Pima, talked with geologists about mines and metallurgy, Mrs. Oliver Moristo next door gave birth to a son-Kenneth Harrison.

1955 Aug. 5

Sells, AZ

Went to Crow Hang with Pascoes, tiswin dance, saw signs of dance around, George Norris asked about Domingo Franco and his charcoal burning, said to be a good artist, photo’d baskets of Mrs. Ruth Jones, did not go to dance.

1955 Aug. 6

Sells, AZ

Was going to go to Pisinemo, but heavy rain canceled trip, Juan and Juan Matthias worked on rebuilding a trailer, Henry and Jonny made a trip to “Niger Toe,” talked with Mrs. Savage the postmistress, the aunt of Helen Peterson, NCAI.

1955 Aug. 7

Sells, AZ

Drove to Tonowas and towards Babguivari, walked part of the way, Norris stuck his truck and was rescued by Juan, Bawakee warry.

1955 Aug. 8

Sells, AZ

Tucson, AZ

Went to Tucson, got photos, ran errands, visited Mission, shopped in Tucson, meeting of self-help program-those present listed.

1955 Aug. 9

Sells, AZ

Went to Pisinemo for meeting with Joe Bailey and Juan, talked with Father Cyril, had discussion about charcoal, also listed member of those present at the meeting.

1955 Aug. 10

Sells, AZ

Went to Mexico, visited San Miguel, Henry Throssel, went and saw Indian ruins, also mining claims and prospects, returned home.

1955 Aug. 11

Sells, AZ

Talked with Lee Chase, Bush Laucks, Range Mangine, Wells, Mr. Hawley at the agency, tried to go to Big Fields but too muddy, took old man to the doctor, or medicine man, then took an old woman and paralyzed boy there for treatment.

1955 Aug. 12

Sells, AZ

Arranged with Juan Matthies for supplies for Pisinimo, talked with Mr. Taylor, school field man, paid bills, meeting at agency with Mr. Hawley and other listed.

1955 Aug. 13

Sells, AZ

Drove to Tucson, car died, got help, had a tooth removed, read in public library,shopped.

1955 Aug. 14

Sells, AZ

Trip to Earring Mtn., delayed by muddy washes, took detour, talked with Mr. Jaeger and Juan Matthias.

1955 Aug. 15

Sells, AZ

Meeting in Hawlye’s office to plan meeting with congressman, Mark had conferred with Assoc. on Papago Affairs, minor revisions to schedule, plans for different departments, roles each would play.

1955 Aug. 16

Sells, AZ

Took equipment to work on construction.

1955 Aug. 17

Sells, AZ

Explored Earring Mtn. ruins of Indian fort, talked with Mrs. Tracy about her reminiscences, visited others under the ramada, took photos, stopped at Covered Wells, all washes running.

1955 Aug. 18

Sell, AZ

Visited old mine north of Picacho, followed peddler to Papago home, bought baskets, Pascoe’s off to yearly meeting.

1955 Aug. 19

Sells, AZ

Tucson, AZ

Went to Tucson, talked to Hermosa Stone Co., talked to Joe Vaszuez, talked to Assembly of God minister.

1955 Aug. 20

Sells, AZ

Talked to George Norris, Pima water problem mtg was Thurs., Joe Vaszuez to go with SW Court CO., drove to San Miguel and Earring Mtn., went to top and saw burial sites.

1955 Aug. 21

Sells, AZ

Went to Catholic Church, talked to Juan Matthias, Joe Bailey, went to other churches, went to Pisinems-drawings.

1955 Aug. 22

Sells, AZ

Tucson, AZ

Went to Tucson to buy materials for solar stove, self help program committee in honor of us.

1955 Aug. 23

Sells, AZ

Worked in sheet metal shop, met with board of the Papago News, problem with new editor to take Frank Stevins place because he was in jail for forging checks, Juan flew to Pascdens.

1955 Aug. 24

Sells, AZ

Finished sheet metal work, other workshop work.

1955 Aug. 25

Sells, AZ

Tried out stove.

Not dated (1948?)

Tucson, AZ

59th Annual Report, Agricultural Experiment Station, Botanical plant information, drawings.

Not dated


Different survey/study information, Papago Tribal Self-Help Program information, about baskets.

Not dated


Butcher shop information.

Not dated


Ramada information, Hermosa Stove Co., Charcoal information.

Not dated


Charcoal-Acme Charcoal Corp., Harry Schulz, William Durlap.

Not dated


Baskets information.

Not dated


Addresses of men.


Notebook #[1]: August 1956: trip to South Dakota, etc.




1956 Aug. 2

Tama, Iowa

Talked with tribal chairman, Edward Davenport-gave name of Robert Breckenridge-interested in Meagnakies, met with field representative-Ernest Magnusson, at University of Chicago field station, we met with Bob Rietz and Eugene Fugle, took photographs.

1956 Aug. 3

Paullina, Iowa

At Walter Henderson’s house, repaired equipment, visited O’B Co. Coop Creamery in Pringbar, visited friends.

1956 Aug. 4

Pringbar, Iowa

Shopping, visited old school community building and meeting house.

1956 Aug. 5


Meeting, met several different people, talk of drought, crops, talked about Indian affairs-education.

1956 Aug. 6


Trip to SD social welfare dept., errands, went to Over museum, looked at files on Indian studies.

1956 Aug. 7


Only mentioned breakfast.

1956 Aug. 6

University of SD, Vermillion, Institute of Indian Affairs

Survey of conditions of Indians in the US, hearings, Indian health service records, economics, land, ownership, allotments, ND Indian Affairs Commission-John B. Hart-exec. dir., BIA-Aberdeem and Billings area, Missouri River Basin Investigations Project, MRBIP-leasing of Indian trust land-Crow Reservation, cultural and economic status of Crow people, Minn. Legislative Research committee, Pueblo Governor, horse in Blackfoot Indian culture, union calendar, survey report on the BIA, Govt Print Office.

1956 Aug. 8


The people of Tipi Sapa(the Dakotas), Tipi Sapa is Rev. P. J. Deloria, other names.

1956 Aug. 8


Selling of land by Anne Bordeau, tribal holdings, problems with real estate, descriptions of real estate.

1956 Aug. 8


Mr. Eddie Coker, land Management officer showed us accounting of real estate, land allotments, budgeting, talked about meetings with the tribes at Rosebud, Republican campaigning, agreements with tribe.

1956 Aug. 9


Edger Havens-Agency Land Officer-buying of land, involvement of BIA, introduced to Iver Crow Eagle, Supt. Graham Holmes-had been attorney, Guy Robertson, processing of land sales, Indians to solve their own problems, no land operation corporations, TLE designation and responsibilities, Indians pressured to sell land, Indians “must conform to the dominant culture economically,” opportunities for people, went with Iver Crow Eagle to talk with Rudy Arcoren-about his experiences selling land-foreclosure, James Quigley joined conversation, some landowners are suing the tribal council for illegal election and management of tribal funds, failure of the bureau, let the Indian take care of himself, talked with Jim Wilson about thoughts about Indians and land ownership, talked with Dr. Paul Barbour, Rev. Harold Luxon and Frank Stewart about the relocation of Indians, talked with Mrs. Drew at Sioux Arts and Crafts house.

1956 Aug. 10

Rosebud, SD

Drove to Rosebud, picked up Iver Crow Eagle to go see people, talked with Mrs. Hattie Keens The Mountain, married to Mr. Claremont, talked about state aid, thoughts about the agency; Mr. John Compton(formerly Crazy Bull) living in St. Francis, agency appraised his land, was on tribal council at one time; Abraham Kills In Sight of Spring Creek, member of Tribal Council-sold land, supervised land sale, criticized the BIA; met Frank Pickett Pin on the road-talked about importance of land; drove on and met Isaac Bear Shield-talked about selling land, cattle, leases his land, paying off debt, went to Shield and Iver Crow Eagle had both gone to the Catholic school, thoughts about the BIA, Jim Wilson shared thoughts about local industry.

1956 Aug. 11


Mr. Erickson, dir. of Public Welfare, used to distribute rations, talked about commodities, showed statistics about costs; Evelyn Schmidt-brought up on the reservation, leasing land, exchange/trade of land with Indians; talked with Rev. W. Harold Luxon-lived in Parmelee-possibly where AID workshop might succeed, Bud Whipple works for Bricklye-large cattle operators, relationships with Indians on reservation good-‘Indians want to lease land,’ Suxon told of kids on Arapahoe Reservation, Indians better at ranching, than farming, TLE receives the deed for property, Indians don’t know real value of the land, Indians are anti-Negro; supper with Dr. Paul H. and Margaret Barbour-they are about to retire, other family information.

1956 Aug. 12


Trinity Church, met Driving Hawk, talked about value of land, own thoughts about importance of teaching the Indians the importance/value of their land, “The Agency prevents the tribe from managing its own affairs, the tribal council is too impetuous and irresponsible,” other thoughts about those who complain about the agency.

1956 Aug. 13


Talked with Mrs. Evelyn Schmidt, council elected by districts, language difficulty, struggles with the agency, Indian education, employment, solutions? Talked with Edgar Havens-got files of land transactions, Clarence Emery-TLE land appraiser, Federal Land Bank Loans at the National Farm Loan Assoc., budgeting, Mrs. Margaret Barbour talked about what people are proud of; talked with William Zimmerman-BIA manual talk, impeachment of Frank Wilson at Pine Ridge, no income tax on product of trust land, federal funds to purchase land? Learning of tribal language; Father Helmueller, Father Fagan-talked about characteristics of Indians, BIA’s role, Grazing Regulations Title 25 Rosebud Sioux Reservation; loan program; at Spring Creek garden talked with Lee Sudlow, and Mr. and Mrs. Doty, and other; Talked with Graham Holmes and Zimmerman-talk about tribal land, herds, non-consolidation arrangement of the land, TLE is now about dead-role it played, need for social workers.

1956 Aug. 15


Talked with Nicholson about budget of Indian families, welfare, selling land; met Jake Kills In Sight, chairman of the TLE at Agency, also met Buzz La Pointe; talked with Elmer Compton-had been a member of the Tribal Council in 1950, owns Trading Post, talked about other businesses, wants less Agency supervision, role of local industry to provide work, he went to a Mission BIA boarding school; talked with Father BD Fagan and Zimmerman about promotion of cattle enterprise by Indians; talked with Richard B. Washington, Cherokee, nephew of Chief Jarrett Blythe, a descendent of Tsali, talk of schools, census being taken; talked with Zimmerman-said that George Kills in Sights wants to see him, “progressive” education for Indians.

1956 Aug. 16

Rosebud, SD

Met George Kills In Sight, chairman of the TLE-talk of TLE policy, procedures, history, all land has been returned to the tribe that had been taken, intermarriages with Indians, white common law; Jim Herman, janitor of the Agency, recommended to us by Evelyn Schmidt, formerly on school board, on committee for adult education, public schools; Jesse Good Voice-found at Paulhamas store, had sold land, experience ranching, had operated the agency power house, land ownership to the tribe, should be controlled by the tribe, not by TLE, talk with Clarence Emiry, TLE buying more land; went to “Indian Days” celebration at Soldier’s Creek; James Wilson, impeached chairman of Oglala Sioux Council.

1956 Aug. 17

Pine Ridge, SD

James W. Kauffman, Supt., grad Penn State 1918, relocation, local industry, tribal funds; talked to Mr. Kreutzer-assistant to Mr. Holloway in Realty, land figures; Mrs. Elizabeth Forshey-in charge of welfare-figures of aids of ADC, OAA, blind, and disables, adult education, family raising the child; visited Oglala Sioux Tribal Rehabilitation Enterprise-sell building materials, James La Pointe is the manager; Oglala Sioux Tribal Office-interviewed members of the Tribal Council, met with White Wolf, took pictures of Mary Anne Trimble-talked about education, rehabilitation, ‘workcamp’ is one of the best things that ever happened to Pine Ridge, Mrs. Janis stressed importance of home; rehabilitation loans, oil has been found near here, feelings of those who think that the Bureau should be abolished; lack of education, economic opportunities, land, citizenship, and social practices, health, ambition, skills, diet, short life; thoughts on termination of federal service, selling of land.

1956 Aug. 18


Talked with Jake Herman, he talked about good things about Kauffman, not interested in politics, thought that the workcamp was a good thing; talked with E. Irving at the Arts and Crafts Shop; visited Catholic cemetery, bought groceries; visited Holy Rosary cemetery-Red Cloud buried here, talked with Father Edwards at the Holy Rosary Indian School-mad about BIA issues and school board issues; Eva J. Nichols information; Isaac Chase-Mayor’s Committee on Human Relations-family information, then went to municipal court and met Mr. Cook-gave thoughts about Indians wanting to go to jail, purposeful destruction, selling of Indian land; went to Bennett Memorial Hospital to talk to Mrs. Eva Nichols-talked about feelings of what the land means to Indians, took photos of Emily Gayden, talked about the lack of health services to Indians in Rapid City, social work needed, public health, jobs, family needs;

1956 Aug. 18

Rapid City, SD

Went to meet with Mr. and Mrs. Edward Janis, Sr., talked about the Aerial Summery Range, land leased to whites, leases to Indians sometimes lost, BIA issues, selling of land; At the Aerial Summery Range of Scenic-talked with Mr. Clifford-talked about the range, workers, and animals, lease money; met with Henry Two Crows at Kyle, SD, talked about family, said main problem of the Indians is liquor, govn’t coming out to help with farming; At Potato Creek talked with postmistress, Henry Morrison (?) wanted a school for their community, took photo of Myrnette Wounded Head; drove through Badlands, visited Memorial Museum; John Artichoker, Jr.-Supervisor of Indian Education, will study at Vermillion University of SD, talked of Indians jealousy of each other, importance of land?, education is key, BIA scholarships, cattle loan program, need: time, education, employment, home situation, industry, ambition, desire, need homes for students studying at college.

1956 Aug. 22


Fred A. Seaver speech at Rep. Convention-Nat’l parks and forests increased, Indian reservations decreased; phoned home from Pierre, SD, at Cheyenne Agency got a copy of the report on their rehabilitation program.

1956 Aug. 23

Aberdeen, SD

Talked to Landbloom Asst. area director, with BIA for 18 yrs., resource development, economic development of resources, Indians selling livestock, talked about meetings, industries coming to reservations, education, Indian leas privilege, loss of land to cause social problems?; talked with realty officer, Rex H. Barnes, and Robert L. Bennett, program officer, Bennett was supt. at consolidated S and Mtn. Ute in Ignacio, Colo. before Jim Canon, rehabilitation program, barriers?, language, traditions, BIA’s role in not training employees in tribal languages, production, BIA school, welfare budget, loss of land in 1921, “In getting economic goal, don’t lose your family,” economic, political and social maturity, “People are more important than the land,” role of the dominate culture in Indian life, Rosebud TLE, claims based on history, IRA loans; Rex H. Barnes-talked on inheritance of common law marriage, mortgaged property at Rosebud, transfers; visited Indian school, talked with Mrs. Clark, visited other sites.

1956 Aug. 27


Russell M. Kelly-area officer for education-grants to Indians, scholarships, role of public schools.

1956 Aug. 27


Insert-Indian lands-Minneapolis area, allotted, tribal, public domain, and farm securities.

1956 Aug. 27

Minneapolis, MN

Talked with Robert D. Holtz, area director, talked about schools: BIA vs. public, trust land, sanitation.

1956 Aug. 28


Mrs. Dorothy Stewart-clerk, agent; Mr. Harold Redding-Manager Simpson Electric, local industry, public welfare, BIA employees actions, penalties; Reverend White Rabbit-relocation and welfare, certificate of competency; George W. Brown-Secretary of Tribal Council-credit for house building; Marvin E. Dillman-assemblyman, head of CCC camp, then principal of BIA school, thoughts about assimilation, relocation, home situation, “Indian” welfare, Nixon’s role, discrimination; Harold Redding-manager of Simpson Electric Co., thoughts on what it is like to live here, benefits for working here; took photos of Charles Peterson and Peter Poupart; Mrs. Lucille Mayer-county public health nurse, took us to home of Lake Lucerne tribal council member, Ike George, took photos, family info, other descriptions of photos, boarding schools, commodities, life on reservation.

1956 Aug. 30

Keshena, WI

James G. Frechette, memorial advisory council, thoughts about how tribe feels about taxation on services, economics, liquor not worse problem since repeal, social workers actions;

1956 Aug. 24


Virgin Max, and Melvin Robertson Sisseton-selling of land, loans, relocation, education needed, tax-free status, public schools, industry, scholarship and leadership lacking; breakdown of prices of land for July 1956; recommendations for Agency.

1956 Aug. 30


James G. Frechette-welfare payments, schools, hospital information; garment factory-operations, Stockbridge-Muncee-tribally owned land, leaving the reservation; Pine Ridge, Mrs. Forshey: breakdown of welfare money; Melvin L. Robertson-superintendent of Agency-was at Colville, Klamath, tribal rolls closed, life on the reservation, role of money on the reservation, communication, tax exemptions, leadership, land ruined, discrimination in Shawano, public assistance.

No date


Addresses of tribal members? and others.

No date


Passage from “A Battle Yet to Wage.”

No date


List of names.

No date


List of numbers-finances of Agency?

No date


List of names and agencies.

No date


Passages from Olwer La Farge: The Changing Indian U of Okla, 1942

No date


Story told by Young Bear, Annals of Iowa.

1956 June 28


Robert W. Rietz, met his family; met Rev. Ernest Rueter of Nashu, Iowa; met the Tama Tribal Council, Edward Davenport, chairman, also list of others, discussed problems of the school and the role of the council in those problems, leadership, health services; met Jim McCabe.

1956 June 28

Tama, Chicago

Charlie Pushetonegua, story of his wife’s miscarriage, family life, Presbyterian church-few members, Jimmy Ward, UP Museum Emily Pettinos.

1956 July 16


Mr. Zimmerman’s take on BIA claims, relocation, Brookings Institution study proposed for Pine Ridge.

No date


List of resources.


Notebook #[2]: 1957-1958        

Dates (s)



1957 July


American Indian Center, list of names

1957 June 24


Sol Tax, relocation, investigate material, Board approval to go through museum, wants list of names of all Indians living in Chicago, Indians who are ‘more’ Indian than before, BIA relocation instead of reservations, list of names with numbers, planning board information, more names, employment of Indians, whites as supreme beings, fitting struggle into world picture,

1957 July 5


Harold E. Fay, Kurt Dreifues-relocation, settlement, struggles; Dr. D. L. Mahoney- anthropology degree, experience, thoughts on BIA employees, employment; Mrs. Gordon-Travelers Aid, BIA comments, dependency, frustration, relocation; Mr. Collings-Exec Secretary, Travelers Aid, helping people, problems of the city, demand of workers, industrialization; Friday night meeting at Indian Center about feelings about Indians’ capabilities; comments from Hood, Degando, Susan Kelly, and Thurman Wolf about Indian affairs.

1957 June 7


Sol Tax, white man’s mistakes in dealing with Indians, treatment of Indians.

No date


List of sources?, peoples names

No date


Quote from the Chi Tribune (1956 Sept. 16) concerning the BIA.

No date


Quote from the Sun Times (1956 June 6) concerning relocation.

No date


Quote from the Sun Times (1956 March 22) concerning the BIA programs, assistance.

No date


Al Cobe, Chippewa, YMCA worker, relocation, integration of the Indian.

No date


Quote from America Indigina XVI, “The freedom to make mistakes.”

No date


List of times and places, some names and addresses.

No date


Calculations, names and addresses.

No date


List of names, some dates listed next to names.

1957 Nov. 25


National conference on Indian youth, race relations, recreation, education, employment; names of many people; Roger Ernst-cultural education; Louis Bruce- advice of youth, education; Roger Baldwin-ACLU-studied anthropology, integration, fundamentals to democracy, relocation, human rights.

1957 Nov. 25?

Department of the Interior auditorium.

Vyola Olinger, Bob Burnette, Dr. Ben Reifel, address at Harvard, Indian youth ‘problems,’ adjusting to the outside world, “We live in conquest over nature,” issues concerning slavery, cultural heroes lacking for Indians, need to develop cultural heroes to inspire youth, employment needed, education issues, economics.

1957 Nov. 25?

Department of the Interior auditorium.

Mrs. Annie Sandersky, HEW Children’s Bureau, Norma Dewer, Mrs. Esther, Allen Lowe Variz, Harold Buchanan, other names listed as well (those members present); Sandersky Indian Youth has nothing to do-leadership, social activities, juvenile delinquency, education the base for better economics, encouragement, qualifications of teachers, lack of opportunities, farm production.

1957 Nov. 25?

Dillon Platers Navajo Tribal Council, Camponcito

Name of those present, BIA attendance at public schools, scholarships; visit to doctor, presentation of certificates.

1957 Nov. 25?


Comments about the conference that he just attended, responses to speeches, responses to the solutions given to support the youth problems, assimilation, cultural differences.

1957 Dec. 7

ASEE McGraw-Hill

Panel C, Education for research and development-Sid Kirkpatrick; need for humanities, research development, development of supersonic plane, more need for math and basic science.

1957 Dec. 18


Council on Indian Affairs, YMCE Phila; working in Goldwater, list of names, to discuss Indian policy, address of Galen R. Weaver, hearings on Federal Indian Policy.

1957 Dec. 18


Franklin Inst., science and a national world security system, national planning assoc cooperate to prevent imposition of a planned economy, Colorado Richard S. Leghorn commission on National Planning their arms control, “Can science help acquire national system for security?” setbacks in western world, advancement of science, security, committee of NPA studied weapons, sale of modern weapons to more countries, delegation of authority, peace options, deterrents, issues with Russia, inspection.

1958 Jan. 30


Indian Rights Assoc. Annual meeting; speaker- Lee Metcalf-IRA’s role in Indian Affairs, resources underdeveloped, difference between consultation and consent-BIA determined to terminate regardless-Flathead Reservation, homesteading, BIA consent of land price, attack on tribal ownership, Blackfeet protest land sale, secure land, spiritual as well as economic reasons, Papago Redevelopment Program, reports bases on HEW Public Health Service, relocation and redevelopment of reservation-BIA’s role in this, IRA helped get Meriane Survey, natural resources, land sales, protection of other assets, Public Health, retain Indian culture, national responsibility,  consent of government, solutions? Industries, oil on Blackfeet res.

1958 Feb. 5


CRC, Indian Subcommittee, heifer project; Soboba-1933 diversion of water; cooperatives-credit unions; Indian program, list of names of presenters, addresses; issues at Goldwater; Murray-talked about BIA land policy, sales; BIA opposes tribal veto or restraint on land sale.

1958 March 12

Sheraton Park Hotel

List of names, BIA programs of resource development; government support for ‘Pt. 4’ program? 65 tribes in NCAI; programs involved; IRA agreed to help with study of land sales-affects? Independence, resettlement, tax subsidies? US has no training or practice for Indians in managing Indian affairs, Bimson report-transfer Indians to HEW; Littlesoldier-comments; Carl Whitman-PR government attitude, importance of extension, education, focus on problem, democratic method, lack of leadership, needs of the BIA; John Rainer-wants to help, community organization; Mrs. Trick-authoritarianism, develop leadership, World Affairs Center to UN, democratic spirit, need positive program, supported programs of the BIA; Mrs. Hall-extension work, talked about community programs kids were in;

1958 March 12

LEL and CC Victory, Tahleguah, OK

“Need to retain land in tribal or trust status,” Jose-experiment with one tribe, strength economy and resource development; Rainer-student exchange program; thoughts from other members present about taxes and privileges, interaction between the BIA and the people, need of education for the Indians; taking inventory of human and natural resources; role of education, give Indians leadership, economic freedom.

1958 March 24


S. Radhakrishman-Inter-Religious Cooperation, independence movements, religion’s role in crisis-concepts/values of religion/spirituality that are involved; thoughts about Gandhi’s philosophy.

1958 May 4


CRC Annual Round-Up, Diocesian Center-Radnor; Milton Gordon-“Those opposed to race-progress: intransigent, habituated by educable-vested interests;” list of names; role of social science; AFSC and ethics, limitations; list of techniques-persuasion, use of status and power, use influence of ‘gate keepers,’ persistence, social situation, boycott, picket line, legal sanctions, non violent direct action, violence, dishonesty, hostility; focus on “witness not on results;” questioning how to assure justice-faith in institutions; results of above techniques; aggressive behavior based on fear; problems of delinquency; social situation theory; role of the law; survey? of response to the Army experiment; NYC integrated public housing; sociological variable related to resistance; list of attitudes toward success of integration; resistance to desegregation; role of the AFSC; communication across racial lines? AFSC and police and troops.

1958 May 6


List of those present; AFSC’s services; funds being cut; ideals of government vs. techniques of leadership; University of Puerto Rico program for community leadership; encampment for citizenship.

1958 May 7


CRC commission, list of those present; An Atlanta Project; Dr. Fred Gearing-Asst. Prof. Anthropology University of Washington, Indian Commission-Seattle-talked about discrimination, segregation, etc., pressures, anger, “Indian problems,” assimilation, acculturation, Indian policy history, community, government policy, destruction of the concept of community, leadership, “freedom to make mistakes,” cure? Solution? BIA cannot create “an active, creative community,” farming; comments from others about education, law and order, “independence involves taxation,” land sales final? Cultures change.

Notebook #"1": June 1958-August 1958: Tucson workcamp (accession 2006:124)

Date(s) Location Topic/comments/notes
1958 June 7 Pendle Hill Mike Yarrow, Meditation
1958 June 8 Pendle Hill A.M. meeting, Mike Yarrow regarding relations with regional offices, reports to regional office, visitors: AFSC official, parents, community relations, Norman Whitney, "Primer on Pacifism" James E Bristol, quotes from various authors: Harrison Brown, Justice William O. Douglas, Commander Gordon Jones, project, way to live life on the large scale, how meetings will be held, more like religious meetings, ground rules for the campers and leaders
1958 June 9 Pendle Hill High school camp problems, first aid, purchase list, basic food list, swimming regulations, Harry C. Wolfe and Jean Bartow on route to W. Pakistan for metallurgical research co. proposed setting up a forum of consultants to take ICA contracts for technical assistance, budget and costs notes for camp, Catherine Evans’ sociometric technique, Carl Rogers’ client centered counseling, Projects committee
1958 June 10 Pendle Hill Opinion Research Bureau of University of Chicago study, using interns for controls, role of a leader,
1958 June 14 Haverford, Pa.-Cleveland, Oh Steffie gave birth to Karl David Johnston, dinner with Suttons other guests Sidney and Jeanette McCuskey
1958 June 15 Drove to Chicago Car trouble, heater hose, repaired
1958 June 16 60 miles E. of Springfield Mo. Car trouble, water in gas, repaired, camped beside road
1958 June 17 Wyandotte, Ok Austin and Joan Wattles have names of persons at Jay Hill and Oak Hill, slept at council house in loom house
1958 June 18 Wyandotte, Ok Breakfast with Pickards, bible school, drove to the Seneca and Cayuga reservation, drove to Bartlesville then to Pawhuska
1958 June 19 Hominy, Ok Met with Mrs. Kipp and health nurse Mrs. Cochrane at friends church, flat tire north of Midway, toured church at Midway, Kickapoo’s use the Friends Community Bldg.
1958 June 20   Met with Mr. Bushyhead at tribal headquarters concerning Indian land ownership, drove to Tucumcari, N.M.
1958 June 21 Albuquerque, N.M. Met with Dr. Sophie D. Aberle director of the Commission on Rights, Liberties and Responsibilities of American Indians, she’s preparing a report about the three tribes that have been terminated by government
1958 June 22 Albuquerque, N.M. Brophy, tribal lawyer of the Pueblos of the United Pueblo Agency , school in good condition and ample quarters for a work camp, drove to Crown point met with Brad Havice community house looked good, drove to Gallup
1958 June 22 Gallup, N.M. Discuss with Sam Billson The Arizona State School for the Deaf and the Blind, Tucson new school and community center to be ready next summer, financial figures, Ft Defiance discussion of Bally Boarding House and use of Navajo language in school, traveled west
1958 June 24   Paid to take pictures and have children show around town saw the line and description about the struggle in 1906, went to Grand Canyon for lunch , dinner in Prescott
1958 June 25 Tucson, Ariz. Shopping, met with the director of House of Neighborly Service (a Presbyterian settlement), Liz Thomas, dinner at the Salzers
1958 June 26 Tucson, Ariz. Worked around the House of Neighborly Service, dinner with Dr. Robert Thomas and Presbyterian members of the HNS board, Dave and Mrs. Showlin and others, meeting with the South Arizona Indian Commission, discussion about employment of Chet Higamn
1958 June 27 Tucson, Ariz. Informal introductory meeting with Dixie, Sue T, John O’Brian, Louis Hodges, Jane Horns, Dorothy Engel and Hetzels
1958 June 28 Tucson, Ariz. John and Anne Salzer spoke to group, Mr. Nelson showed sewer line project, took campers shopping, after dinner Juan Pascoe spoke about AFSC, particularly the SW regional office and SW Indian program, Dr. Robert Thomas spoke about heat, health and scorpions
1958 June 29 Tucson, Ariz. Swimming with ten campers , in P.M. audited first business meeting, set up committees and schedule
1958 June 30 Tucson, Ariz. Work, sewer trench, wall demolition, garage cleanup, in evening met with Thomas’s, Sue T. Wayne and Betty Anne, campers went to dance, took pictures
1958 July 1 Tucson, Ariz. Worked on sewer trench, removed windows, prepared walls for painting, talked with Darling about carpentry in little house, free evening
1958 July 2 Tucson, Ariz. Painting dorm, trench digging, dinner guests, Clyde Appleton, Winnie Hubbard, Steve Talbert, 34 students visited from Kansas
1958 July 3 Tucson, Ariz. More work on buildings, sewer trench, staff meeting with campers, group meeting chaired by Wayne, speaker Dr Elmer Yolmas, campers up late
1958 July 4 Tucson, Ariz. Took 12 campers to San Xavier mission, dance in evening, stiff and contrived, no trouble
1958 July 5 Tucson, Ariz. Took several cars to a copper mine, back at camp by 6 o’clock
1958 July 6 Tucson, Ariz. Meeting in A.M., Desert Museum, stopped at Old Tucson
1958 July 7 Tucson, Ariz. Worked on sewer trench and windows, meeting in P.M. camp business
1958 July 8 Tucson, Ariz. Ditch work and windows, Louis Hodges fell out window and dislocated his neck, met with Bill and Edie Hagerty who are on their way to England
1958 July 9 Tucson, Ariz. Deepened ditch to four and a half feet, cut into sewer line ran it to the property line, very hot day 109 degrees
1958 July 10 Tucson, Ariz. Sewer passed inspection, staff meeting with Heinz, Lynne, Sue G., Evan
1958 July 11 Tucson, Ariz. Too hot for campers to work, Mr. Harrington from the Tucson Daily Citizen came with a photographer to get a story about AFCS, took campers to movies, met with Dr. and Mrs. Martin, Mrs. Wright, campers come in late
1958 July 12 Tucson, Ariz. Visited the Arizona Museum, Mr. Sayles gave speech about purpose of museum "to put human values into archeology and ethnology", in evening worked on cinva press (brick making tool)
1958 July 13 Tucson, Ariz. Friends meeting, climbed A mountain, campers went horseback riding
1958 July 14 Tucson, Ariz. Mr. Raymond W. Bliss Jr. and wife Mary visited, he spoke about solar heating
1958 July 15 Tucson, Ariz. Windows are in, took loads of campers to dinner at home and pool of Wm S. Lackey, Mrs. Margaret E Mills hosted
1958 July 16 Tucson, Ariz. Picked up lumber, staff and camp meetings in the afternoon
1958 July 17 Tucson, Ariz. Meditation, article about AFSC in evening paper (The Daily Citizen) Dr. Earl Warmer of University of Arizona spoke on war
1958 July 18 Tucson, Ariz. Sewer working, dance tonight with community
1958 July 19 Tucson, Ariz. Worked with Edward Rivera, wedding of Charles Contreras
1958 July 20 Nogles, Ariz. Friday meeting with Ed Sanders, went to Nogales to bullfight, shopping
1958 July 21 Tucson, Ariz. Worked in little house, in evening Liz spoke about HNS, her troubles with the board, camp plans
1958 July 22 Tucson, Ariz. Trip to Jack Greenway’s mine, toured mill and smelter, drove to Santa Rosa and Children Cemetery, P.M. Dr. Frisch of observatory showed us the sky thru 36" reflector
1958 July 23 Tucson, Ariz. Paint, carpentry, and plaster, dinner at John Davenport’s, talked briefly about work camp
1958 July 24 Pisinimo, Ariz. Met with Frank Vasquez, charcoal maker, dinner at Geo and Catherine Morris, back at camp by 11
1958 July 25 Tucson, Ariz. Made bricks with cinva machine, in evening planned a dance forced indoors because of rain
1958 July 26 Mt. Lemmon, Tucson, Ariz. Stayed at Randolph Jenks cabin, dinner, some hiked to radar station to watch sunset
1958 July 27 Tucson, Ariz. Meditation on rocks, returned at dinner time, dance at Mountain View Church, discussed meetings and meditations with Rev. Samuel J. Lindamood Jr., dance successful
1958 July 28 Tucson, Ariz. Painted interior of nursery, installed toilet, dinner at home of Bruce E. Dusenberry, 10 couples of HNS board members
1958 July 29 Tucson, Ariz. Paul Dayton took the cinva press, staff worked on evaluations, in evening Winnie Hubbard and Clyde Appleton sang outdoors with neighbors, Hillary says camp has been a great success in neighborhood relations, overcoming suspicions
1958 July 30 Tucson, Ariz. Paint, glaze, plumbing, evening worked on evaluations, Hetzels presented with cloth napkins from Mexico
1958 July 31 Tucson, Ariz. Last day for projects, newsletter typed and mimeographed, went to University Theater to see The Potting Shed as guests of the director
1958 Aug. 1 Tucson, Ariz. Finished evaluations, staff departing in many different modes of transportation
1958 Aug. 2 Tucson, Ariz. Packed car to leave, baggage gone through, nothing stolen, drove to Casa Grande stayed overnight
1958 Aug. 3 Phoenix, Ariz. Drove through Blythe, Joshua Tree National Monument to USMC base, met Harry
1958 Aug. 4 USMC base, Yuma, Ariz. Stayed in, watched television, rested
1958 Aug. 5 USMC base, Yuma, Ariz. Harry took me to shops in his battery, drive in movie
1958 Aug. 6 USMC base, Yuma, Ariz. Bought Japanese Zori sandals
1958 Aug. 7 Redlands, Cali. Pacific yearly meeting, recommendation to drop the "and Associates", California home to elderly friends members, topics discussed: social action, fellowship, start worship at 8 those late to wait outside until finished, child care during meetings, committee reports, non controversial matters first, personal concerns, other record sense, Indian affairs commission, William Matchett led conferences with Indians, California League fro American Indians- fundraising, East Bay Indian Comm. Relocates, Indian Child Visitation Comm. Vacation visits, Alice Shoemaker discusses transition problems, Dick Thomas discusses work camp at Santa Rosa
1958 Aug. 8 Redlands Cali. Jimmy cut his lip
1958 Aug. 9 Salton View, Cali. Drove to Salton View
1958 Aug. 10 Redlands Cali. Last session of Pacific yearly meeting, lunch with Esther Carter Richards, went to home of Joseph Platt, then to Monrovia, Pascoes home
1958 Aug. 11 California AFSC staff meeting, met with Orion Sherwood of Golden Rule and Oakwood School, drove to Riverside, Met with O. Garcia superintendent fro S. Cali. Reservations, BIA, about meeting and doing most business at Morongo Valley, drove to Saboba, saw hospital, drove to Glendale, dinner with Alice Shoemaker, Indian community meeting, Jasper Donohue of Maricopa Coop spoke
1958 Aug. 12 California Called on Dottie Pascoe, drove to Santa Barbara
1958 Aug. 13 California Drove to mission at San Luis Obispo, invited to Bruchholy home
1958 Aug. 14 San Francisco, Cali. Ben Seaver showed around AFSC base, toured San Francisco area, drove to Santa Rosa
1958 Aug. 15 Santa Rosa, Cali. Camped at Elk River bottom, toured Italian Swiss Colony winery
1958 Aug. 16 Hoopa, Cali. Drove to Hoopa Reservation, visited Dr. Richard and Elsie Ricklefs, Elsie told about how the Indians were persuaded to vote for PL280 law and order, Were not told they would be left with only two policemen and would lose hunting rights on their land, Ricklefs helped get hunting rights restored but they were left with only one policeman for the entire reservation
1958 Aug. 17 Klamath Falls, Or. Klamath Welfare and Educational Program met with Zak, discussed relations with the Klamath Indians and the towns people not good, turmoil within the two churches one is suing the other, only organization on reservation is Klamath reservation discussion group, they agree to disagree, drove to Crater Lake
1958 Aug. 18 Maupin, Or. Drove to Warm Springs Reservation, met with Floyd Jackson, spoke about the worthlessness of the land, only resource the children, they will spend $1000,000 on a study of their resources and prospects to be carried out by Oregon State, drove to Biggs, Montana
1958 Aug. 19 Plummer, Id. Coeur d’ Alene Indian reservation, met with Wayne Candill and his mother showed us around town, camped
1958 Aug. 20 Glacier National Park, Montana Breakfast with Candrills, drove to Bonners Ferry and Glacier National Park, camped near Lake McDonald
1958 Aug. 21 Montana Toured park, drove to Browning, visited the Plains Indian Museum, spoke with council member Earl Oldperson, land clerk, and tribal secretary Iliff Mckay, concerns about land sales, camped near Havre Montana
1958 Aug.22 Wolf point, Montana Met with Howard Dushane at Ft. Belknap was in Hoopa when work camp was there, Ft Peck Reservation, saw tepees, told there was to be a dance, give away and dance, stayed in motel
1958 Aug. 23 Fort Peck Montana Drove through, drove to North Dakota
1958 Aug. 24 North Dakota Jon’s 16th birthday,
1958 Aug. 25   Called on Mrs. Dorothy Stewart at Simpson, 20 Indian students, met with Harold Redding, drove to Machiau City , Drove to Steeres home
1958 Aug. 26 Dearborn, Mo. Breakfast with Steeres, drove to Dearborn
1958 Aug. 27   Ford Museum and Greenfold Village
1958 Aug. 28   Drove turnpike all the way home


Notebook #[3]: August 1958-May 1959: Fort Berthold

Date (s)



1958 Aug. 29


American Friends Conference on Race Relations, list of names of those present; topics-“plenty of solutions to race problems,” list of those solutions, assimilation, segregation, opposition to armed force, immigrants, demand for schools; David Stanfield-“Color conscious in our social relations,” role of the church as a ‘social club,’ role of religion in tolerance, “Reliance on knowledge one of chief short coming of the age,” “Christianity essential to promote the needed change,” discrimination.

1958 Aug. 29


Later that same day.  List of those to speak, use of troops, lack of local support, petition, survey, “Get support of effective leaders,” talked about “difference between integration and desegregation,” examples of education for Negroes in the south was a farce; Thelma Babbitt-commented about “theory according to democracy and religion,” other problems of discrimination, housing, race relations problems; James McCain-massive resistance in the south; Emery Via-Southern Regional Council-plans for a Friend’s Center in Atlanta.

1958 Aug. 30


“The Psychological Basis of Prejudice,” understanding people, the unconscious dynamic, fear, inferiority, power, hostility, projections, identity, self-rejection, acknowledging fear and guilt, psychology and religion, cause and support of attitudes-list of these, hierarchy of social preferences-stereotypes, self, dignity; apply the above to the reservations, “translate ideals into actions.”

1958 Sept. 1


List of names, attendance at meetings, education, communication between different races.

1958 Nov. 19


Richard P. Feynman-some aspects of physical symmetry, definitions, nature’s role, translations, conservation laws-progression or regression? Science’s role.

1958 Nov. 24

Washington, D.C.

Workshop Committee of Council on Indian Affairs, address; Intellectual content of program-utilitarian factual content, ideas, concepts are 50%, analyzes effectiveness of programs, Indian youths involvement, advantages of workshop experience, discuss costs of program.

1959 Jan. 4


Project Round-up, Pandle Hill, list of names, references, transfers.

1959 Jan. 15

Washington, D.C.

Council on Indian Affairs, list of name of those present, discuss costs, responses to program, Arden House conference, resources for the future, discussion of taking Indian land, treaty rights.

1959 Jan. 15


“Indians more interested in land than in money,” industry, taxes, economic development, FCNL, summer workshop committee issues-sources of funding, AID, AAIA.

1959 Feb. 5


IRA annual meeting, Roger Ernest-“An Indian Policy for Today,” effectiveness of the program must work for everyone, education improved, health, welfare, relocation, industrial development, loan fund, land reclamation, conditions at Standing Rock, Fort Hall, Kaleidoscope-NBC-public recognition, BIA concepts.

1959 March 25

Washington D.C.

Council on Indian Affairs-talked about Native American Church, comments about the summer workshop; Helen Peterson-Colorado River Tribes, Mr. Hand-coordinator, Prine Decree, Central Arizona Project, reallocation, Shija report-confidential, NCAI citations to Emmons and to McCormick of Kaleidoscope, Garry-SCR 12-not strong enough still leaves 108, “BIA job is not to terminate,” transfers of US services, relationship between executive and legislative branches, “Development of Indian people does not depend on alienation of Indian land,” Peterson-NCAI Board meeting open to Council members; Dept. of Interior- list of names; Langer-industrial assistance to Indians, BIA already provides this type of work, Navajo-Hopi Reservation bill, land consolidation; Peterson-confidence in Ernst-listed what he was doing; others comments, vocational education/recruitment, sale of land, BIA.

1959 May 15

Pendle Hill

CRC Round Up, Robert Rietz, hierarchy at Tama, “range of responsibility of individual to others and to community functions,” identifying oneself through community, schools, “need correction by education,” transportation, hope of ‘change,’ industry, “Personal responsibility for salvation etc. a part of western culture.”

1959 May 15

Pendle Hill

Firbank, Indian program group, Washington plans, “What AFSC role in national Indian affairs?” self-determination, self-determination.

1959 May 15

Pendle Hill

Bob Rietz, “What is Indian situation relative to other minorities about self-identification?” “Desire to have one’s values confirmed,” concept of Indians changing; at Chicago Indian Center-“come together in personal terms,” know cultural differences, Tama American Legion Women’s Auxiliary-talked about festivals that they held, “Values-live in the present,” elections discussion.

1959 May 15


Case studies of programs of community development, Pala-job left undone by BIA, BIA not interested in resource development in S. Calif. Reservation, resource development, interaction and different perspectives of the BIA, the AFSC, and the Pala, involvement of the Indians.

1959 May 19

Pendle Hill

Indian Program staff and committee, leadership training, ISO-“lack of publicity and interpretation in mass media;” Chuck McEvers-“planning by others imposed upon Indians,” long range tribal planning.

1959 May 27

Washington, D.C.

YMCA Council on Indian Affairs, list of those present, summer workshop discussion, Seminoles, community development, “write favorable letter of support to Seaton and Ernst,” ‘Force Account’ vs. contracts, social welfare work.

1959 May 27

Washington, D.C.

Interior Building

Roger Ernst-Seminoles in Washington now, wants $10 million added to loan fund, Dept. Int. policy force account vs. contract? Misunderstanding about Hopi-Navajo road construction, youth camps, Heirship bill, Resolution, Interior wants advice, training, Rotation policy, assessment of the BIA.

1959 May 29

Chicago, Midway Airport

Bob Netting, set up committee for recreation area and lodge construction, Earth Lodge, sketches, Mandan Social and Ceremonial Organization, list of names, comments about directors, Roosevelt Park (Badlands), citation from “North Dakota History.”

1959 May 30


Clean up project, continued on community development project; John Drissen-BIA Land Management, Earthlodge, The Way West.

1959 May 31


Dr. Herbert and Lillia Wilson, other names listed.

1959 May 31

New Sanish

Meeting of the Little Shell District, Chapter of the American Legion, presentation-Earthlodge plan, series of events to follow planning, finding funding.

1959 May 31


Dr. Herbert J. Wilson-rallying for Fort Berthold people, “Earthlodge project fits their need,” lodge should not be on private land.

1959 June 1


R. E. McLean, Asst. Supt, Mrs. Gillette, Rupert Holliday, welfare, OK Walkingstick Relocation, youth program-BIA; John P. Drissen-died 1960-talked about possibilities, options; sponsorship, committees, talk about construction of the lodge, sketch, measurements.

No date


To do list, list of names.


Notebook #[4]: June-August 1959: Taos, Ft. Hall, N. Cheyenne 

Date (s)



1959 June 21

Haverford, New Stanton

Travels to Washington.

1959 June 22

Route 40

Visited Barnesville, Friends School, met Peter Robinson.

1959 June23

St. Louis, route 66


1959 June 24


To Oklahoma City to University of Oklahoma hospital, talked with Armin L. Saeger, Jr., selling of land.

1959 June 25

Anadarko, Indian City

Travels to Anadarko and Indian City, souvenir shop-Indian goods.

1959 June 26


Talked with Will Pitner, area director, met Harry Gardner, “Indian” issues and affairs, loss of interest in the tribe, responsibilities of citizenship, regulations, visited Museum of the Southern Plains and the Arts and Crafts shop, good displays.

1959 June 27


Shopped at PX, saw buffalo at the wildlife refuge.

1959 June 28


Went to an old Ft. Sill Museum, sketch of a house.

1959 June 29

New Mexico

Traveling information, phoned Claude Anderson.

1959 June 30

Taos, NM

Claude and Better Anderson, John and Dorothy Burninghouse, talked about employment, options involving the land; Paul Bernal and John Rainier, other names of land owners, purpose of the bypass-to control the land, surveying, measurements of the bypass, jealousy, selling of land.

1959 July 1


Governor Cristino Mirabal, list of others present, engineers, loss of Indian land, incorporated land being taxed, Blue Lake ownership issues, Pueblo rights abused, cooperation; Craig Vincent discussion, land issues, town council’s involvement in the approval of the bypass, business owners thoughts on the bypass, street congestion issues, land cost for bypass-$85,000.

1959 July 2

Santa Fe, NM

Oliver Luifarge, “residents less visible than tourists,” Acoma thoughts on land, “Do Navajo want AAIA, IRA to protest?” “BIA says tribe approves,” cattle on land, Taos Creek, education.

1959 July 3


Addresses and names, Southwestern Assoc. on Indian Affairs, Minton-“you’ve got to work with the young people,” issues and responses about the bypass, “Mexican nationals camps good by treaty,” not good to Indians, education, schools, “should tribal traditions be preserved?” “Interior dept. had opposed pueblos Taos on Blue Lake,” voting-“To vote means to be taxed, and terminated, is the fear,” Santo Domingo-Fernando Coriz-governor-thoughts about the underpass, photo of the old school.

1959 July 4

Albuquerque, NM

William A. Brophy, Sophie D. Aberle, address, thoughts about Pueblo government, education, water rights, regulations, planning for economics, costs of project, “Blue Lake-1907-U.S. Forestry Service persuaded Taos to give land under protection of U.S.,” report of commission, planning needed, “tribal follow up needed,” address of Lewis and Totsy Korn, visited Indian school; Canoncito-talked again with Mr. and Mrs. John W. Tippiconie, cost of a new community house, new school, sketches, no water at new school, schools on the reservation, Navajo housing.

1959 July 5


Visited McCartys, Santa Maria church, then to Acomita, visited Lola Garcia, adult education, Sammy Sanchez-comments about the highway project, Crownpoint-Ruth Fry of Tucson, Viola Pfrommer, list of other names and community improvements; Ft. Defiance-Sammy Day-legal issues involving the registering of Indians, hospital issues, reservation issues, different dances, burial, Ft. Defiance school reopened, John Fellows report on Navajo schools, list of names.

1959 July 6

Ft. Defiance, NM

Howard McKinley, John Fellows-report on Navajo schools, health services; W. Carson Ryan, Jr.-employee agitation, appropriation of governmental moneys; Robert Young-assist. To supt. (Landboom) Navajo reservation-talked about school, languages, list of names after Ft. Defiance heading, some addresses.

1959 July 7


Visited activities of music, arts and crafts, etc., went to Hobsons, talked about Navajo tribal politics, group meeting.

1959 July 8


Dillon Platers, IBM operator, calculations of grain distribution, Samuel Billison-Assist. Dir. Of Community service-comments, Donald Weaver-community center.

1959 July 9


Travels from Ft. Defiance, Friends Mission Rough Roch AZ, list of names, went to prayer meeting, running of the mission.

1959 July 10


Looked around the mission, no one spoke English.

1959 July 11

Arches National Monument

Travels, heard that sun dance was taking place at Hayden, near Whiterocks, sketch of what the dance looked like.

1959 July 12


Roosevelt, Ft. Duchesne(?) Francis McKinley-Dir. community services, 10 yr. Plan, discussion of the public school, BIA equal treatment policy, adult education, Hillcreek Camp-what goes on there and list of names; Anne Huff-splitting the tribes, education, corporations; Rex Curry-survey-re: amendments to constitution, dissention-uncompagre had few mixed bloods, voting, improvements; Gen. Holderidge-sovereign nation-liked to free men in jail, University of Utah survey-adult education, “to teach Indians what the constitution is and is not,” amendments are needed; Ft. Hall workcamp-list of names.

1959 July 15


Ft. hall Tribal Business Community meeting, “BIA had not time to work on land consolidation,” boarding school, Power Co. to pay for power line, use of prison labor: D’Arcy McNickle-American Indian “Development,” checkerboarding, “schooling not all-important, knowledge of English doesn’t make one wise,” sickness, health program, AID programs, talked about political, social and economic problems, unused land, water, cooperation; Hardmut Clauss-Paul Davis, need for community center; tribal priority, study of resources, minutes from the June 12, 1959 meeting were summarized; Westvaco phosphate mining-Ft. Hall Tribal Business Committee, recording of the sun dance; report about the University of Idaho survey; Idaho State College info; BIA plants crops, land allotments, recreation center.

1959 July 17


BIA’s role in a productive loan program, developing resources, University of Idaho’s ownership of allotments; Willie George, Ed Boyer and son Dwayne-area office, land negotiations, adult education, boarding school; trip around reservation with Edward and Dwayne Boyer, jealousy among community members; John Channer-workcamping in Yugoslavia, thoughts about injustices/ mistreatment against Indians.

1959 July 18


Frank Thorpe, Layton Littlejohn, John Pokibrow, Dolores Paniogue, use of the land, talk about tribal actions, address of Emily McDermott.

1959 July 19


Went to Episcopal Church of the Good Shepard, talked about Ft. Hall with Father John Kimball and Seminarian Frank Potter, went to Bannock Creek Sun Dance, talked with John Pokibrow.

1959 July 20


Meetings with tribal committees, “biggest problems-resistance, fear of change, of termination,” tribal ownership of land, jealousy, acculturation, land allotments mistake, issue of water, money can’t solve problems, gardens for people, Indian Public school at Bannock, problems at school; county agent-role, tribal cattle sales-not under control of the BIA anymore, Bottoms land, University of Idaho-development of projects, gambling a big problem, suicides; tribal minutes of June 12, 1959; went shopping.

1959 July 21

Jackson Lake

Stayed at Jackson Lake, visited Yellowstone, Old Faithful.

1959 July 22


Harvey Baty, John Singleton, teacher and adult education, United British Colony, United Nations Regional Training Center, cooperation, Prof. Albert Lexawsky-director 50yrs. Of Tech. Assist.; List of names and occupations, housing.

1959 July 23


Went to Baty’s, photograph of entire family, TBA spoke about Indian affairs.

1959 July 24


Traveling, car crash, shopped in Red Lodge.

1959 July 25


Crow Agency, talked to jailor, visited Custer Battlefield; Clyde W. Hobbs-Superintendent, Crows buying and selling land, talking about what type of people the Crows are, education, talk about tribal members; Custer Battlefield, Lame Deer, Frank W. Cady, Albert Monotky-was at Carlisle School, JohnWoodenlegs-prominent in the Battle of Little Big Horn.

1959 July 26

Birney, ID

Margot Liberty-teacher, adult education, reservation-Hoebel-“Cheyenne Way-OK,” Busby has a Federal Boarding School, alcoholism, sanitation, housing, welfare percents, Jensen (BIA)-“not human-minded,” military minded, irrigation system, lowest wages earned by Cheyenne; Anne Clark-BIA, adult education, “Burney school center force in community,” not economic, recreation program, tribal council handling of money; John Woodenlegs-Indian Burney community hall, encourage education among the youth, tribal ownership, BIA and land ownership, land being sold to non-native, selling of cattle, development of resources, workcamp project, need more wells, building of homes, misuse of alcohol, factory work-run by tribal officers, land allotments, needs of the reservation-jail, hospital, housing, employment; relocation.

1959 July 27


New Town Workcamp, division between whites and Indians, relocation.

1959 July 28


New Town-BIA Agency, payment of land, dishonesty, land sale, met Mr. Francis Charging at Mendaree, Robert E. McLean-Administrative Officer, Mrs. Morsette-realty clerk, Helen Gough, Mrs. Rose hand, list of names at New Town Workcamp.

1959 July 29


Jim and Marcy Engel, ranching and farming techniques-borrowed from the Indian, borrowing back and forth; North Dakota Community Betterment Program, time is a solution, bad work habits; Helen Gough-scholarship fund; Pat Patterson-trust set up.


Pocatello, ID

Insert by Mrs. Emily W. McDermolt, Democratic State Committeewoman from Bannock County, “The reason the Indians trust me is because I have listened to what they want …/….”

1959 July 30

Ft. Yates

Mr. James G. McLean, tribal chairman, tribal purchase of land, BIA’s role, selling of cattle, welfare, taking away of tribal rights, IRA others thoughts of selling of cattle.

1959 July(says August-but I think that it’s July-right after July 30 and before August 1st) 31

Cheyenne River Agency

Noralf Nesset, interpretation of fee status, land sale, education, grants, scholarships, repairs on houses; Anthony Rivers-tribal chairman, training of BIA officers, water issues.

1959 August 1


Graham Holmes-1881 report, no economic base, Indian’s freedom comes and goes, migratory workers, no natural resources, some good schooling, ambitious people on the reservation, “NCAI and claims lawyers may easily mislead Indians,” delegating of authority, negotiations with Indians, land allotments.

1959 August 2


Baptist Union Church, saw Emma’s painting and Phil’s pottery.

1959 August 3


Lunch in Sioux City; St. Augustine’s museum, Winnebago-list of acres-and list of acres on reservations, land sales, development opportunities, taxation of the land.

1959 August 4

Des Moines, IO

Vivian Cole, list of names.

1959 August 5


Phone Anje (?) Olin, talked to McComb, AFSC in Chicago.

1959 August 6


Visited Lon Hodges, phoned Hewlings Cooper, Niagara Falls.

1959 August 7


Mr. and Mrs. Cornelius Seneca, 1900 new relationship to BIA, agency in Salamanca, hurdling finances, rentals, leases, Amy engineers plans, new congressional study, lack of support, other talk of development of program-problems etc., farming, missionaries took kids away and educated them, drinking problems, list of names.

1959 August 8


George Heron, Red House, NY, Senator Clark blocks independent survey, get lawyer to fight Kinzua, Jamestown wants Conewango, total mileage for trip: 8,216.

No date


Back few pages is a list of names and addresses, also a list of mail (?) is on back page.


Notebook #[5]: August 1959-July 1960: Hopi hearings




No date


Notes about the Hopi hearings, from July 15-30, 1955. List of names from: Hotevila, Shunopavy, Mishongovi, Sipaulavi, New Oraibi, Bacabi, Upper Moenoopi, First Mesa, 12 Hopi villages.

No date


Notes from Sept. 6, 1906 about the fight at Ovaibi, responses to this.

1959 Oct. 15


Sir Charles P. Snow, Roberts Hall, thoughts about two cultures, types of intellects-literary intellect and the scientific intellect, lack of understanding between cultures.

1959 Nov. 13

Woolman Hil, Deerfield, Mass.

List of those present, contributions of Indians to American Culture in art, books, music, Indian ideologies.

1959 Nov. 14


Problems in contact between different cultures, J. Nixon Hadley-Federal and State Indian Relations, land allotments in relation to treaties, rights to sell, how to get an Indian to vote, relocation, state relationships, receiving of welfare, Governor’s Interstate Council on Indian Affairs, consent-treaty obligations; Lawrence E. Lindley-unpublished manuscript, list of dates and events, Thomas Indian School, Grant Peace Policy of 1869.

1959 Nov. 15


AFSC and Indians etc., USPHS movies available, museums list.

1959 Dec. 9


Prof. Alvin Hansen-‘rich America in poverty,’ list of examples, loaning, grants, repayment, underdeveloped controlled by developed, education issues, foreign aid-should be done by the country itself, tradition to be protected, preserved? Community development.

1960 Feb. 11


Indian Rights Annual Meeting, goals met by committee, and further goals-redevelopment, ruralism, cultural pluralism; Ruth Muskrat Bronson-health education, future of the program, land, local prejudice, schooling; Lawrence Lindley, E. Solenberger, Bob Solenberger.

1960 Feb. 27


AFSC Community Relations Committee, Radnor Drocesian Conference Center, list of names.

1960 Feb. 28


Ira Reid, growth of the CRC program last 10 yrs., hypothetical thoughts, the “Generation Gap,” housing, “private ownership is destroying community,” capitalism, cultural ties with property, political advancement, importance of the individual.

1960 Feb. 29


Raduor Indian Program, value of an advisory group, list of names, working with tribal council, agriculture and range or crafts? Lack of communication; William Zimmerman-Federal Policy and Legislation, conservation, political decisions, federal policy, Soboba-“BIA requires termination for water development,” selling timber to the tribe, Pine Ridge and Rosebud got loans to buy land, costs of land, new land for Navajo is taxed, California Indians-not on home ground; “BIA has refuses to let tribes buy land that they did not plan to use,” outline of land use, Papago plans, rejection by BIA, Colorado River Reservation-tribal council wanted control of their land, tribe need not be organized under IRA to qualify for loan, law and order, tribe has insufficient resources, state institutions, vocational education bill-only for Indians on trust land.

1960 March 1


Dave Scull, letter from Bob Cullum, BIA of Gallup? Resolving conflicting views in Indian Affairs, purpose to reform the BIA, possible directions, recommendations, organizations have different views, Tama-BIA reversed position, sending kids to the reservation, building trust between the BIA and the AFSC, relocation, Bob Rietz.

1960 March 1


CRC meeting, list of names, alternative plans for breach of treaty, Wilfred Conard opposition to letter.

1960 March 31


IBEC housing, Mr. Robert N. Berke, results of test, funding, new needs, International Housing Congress, engineering company, some names, UN Housing and Town and Country Planning, housing in the tropics.

1960 April 20

Washington, D.C.

Council on Indian Affairs, Congressional loan fund of $15 million, submarginal land bill, Indian schools, workshop notes, Florida report, Tuscarora report, Kuizua report, land and water supplies, consideration of general concerns-list of concerns: (1) Why voluntary organizations? (2) Support continuity of Indian communities. (3) Value of diversity. (4) Careful planning and cooperation. (5) Indian workshop goals. (6) Constitutional rights. (7) Responsibility of the community.

1960 April 21

Washington, D.C.

Council on Indian Affairs continued. List of general concerns cont’d: (8) Future functions of Council action; financing, relations with BIA are important, Louis Bruce-White House Conference, ideas of party platforms and names for federal positions, visit to Brookings Institution, small list of names.

1960 April 23


Russell Carter, Board of Home Missions, National council of Churches, duties of the church in Indian affairs, economics, education, health and other problems that the Indians are facing with their rapid growth, the future, White Buffalo Council, Hoover Commission, Flathead chairman comments, cultural transition, what are options?

1960 April 29


Dr. Jacob Bronowsky, creative process in science, arts in science, the role of the creator, imprisonment of society and education.

1960 May 1


Main Line Ecemenical(?) Campus Committee, Overbrook Country Club, list of names.

1960 May 2


Riverside Church Assembly Room, Association on American Indian Affairs, list of names, role of the land, land allotments, fighting for the land, relocation; Whirlwind Horse-Oglalla Sioux, thoughts about the land and cultural history, unemployment, public works program; La Farge remarks-what is actually going on? Land sales, destructive-anti-Indian.

1960 May 4


TV program, NY times art by Stanley Walker, Elizabeth Clark, Cheyenne River (Sioux) Reservation, loans, housing, case study.

1960 May 31


Thomas E. Kent, Norman C. Teleter(?) sketch of water trough, Profesor LW Neubauer, Sorltest Inc., other sketch of piping line (?) and comments about it.

1960 June 2


Council on Indian Affairs, address of building, loan funds, mortgaging tribal land, platforms-Denver Democrats.

1960 June 6


Warren Bank and Trust Company, organization of the schoolhouse, information about David Owl.

1960 June 7


Seneca Court House, George D. Heron presiding, list of names, trouble with Puerto Ricans on reservation, sale of property, road maintenance, maintenance on the reservation, more names.

1960 June 8


Allegany Reservation, list of names, Fillmont Oil and Gas Co.- Mr. Kelly Rhoads, talk about water and wells, treaties and federal constitutions, Public Affairs Press; Arthur Lazarus, Jr.- engineering, surveying, public works appropriations, Senate public works subcommittee has the bill now, NY state action? Eisenhower’s role of holding up the expenditure of Kinzua money? Lone Wolf vs. Hitchcock of 1902, Lake Erie needs more water, Treaty of 1792, minimization of disasters on the reservation, compensation to tribe to add to fair market value; Standing Rock-money for rehabilitation, educational benefits, employment, NY Power Authority, Indian Claims Commission; visit Leroy and Amy Perce, visit Franklin John; Lazarus not yet approved by BIA, limitations, budget committee.

1960 June 9


Cattaraugus, Seneca Nation Court House, counsel for claims on 10 yr. Contract, petitions, budget, safety, rehabilitation program.

1960 June 19


Travels from Haverford to Richmond Indiana.

No date


“IRA and our interest, motives, knowledge, Indian education problem, one of purpose philosophy” segregation, self-determination, suggestions of sources of money.

1960 June 24

Cape May

Friends General Conference, Bliss Forbush, basis of Quaker Heritage-list.

1960 June 25


Raymond Wilson, revolution of personal and social ways, historical examples of women’s suffrage, free education, abolition of slavery; Courtney Smith-discussion of the role of a liberal arts college, stress on environment, moral potential, concern for the community, authority, education.

1960 June 27


Henry J. Cadbury-confidence of Indians as friends, Quakers’, Christians’ role in Indian affairs, thoughts about treaties, committees.

1960 June 28


Arthur E. Morgan, Allegany Reservation-transfer/taking of land, treaties to be open to modification, culture of the Indians, write to congress about concerns.

1960 June 29

Lombard, IL

William H. Krenning, project to oppose Kinzua, Lawrence E. Lindley-Council on Indian Affairs-membership, legislation, image of Indians in popular culture; Nixon Hadley-Government relations with Indians, treaties with colonies, voting, education, important dates in history of Indian affairs; Arthur E. Morgan-International Association for Liberal Christianity and Religious Freedom-search for unity, “the biology of heresy,” role of intelligence, “drive to procreation may be destructive,” “religion and ethics interested in control of sex for human welfare,” “impulse to retaliate,” conditioning of humans, role of Christianity, lack of communication.

1960 June 30


Lela Mills, AECFIA, “Indian work of common interest to friends,” 1870-U.S. Grant Peace Policy, Indian school, integrating whites with Indians; Tillie Walker-AFSC list of dates and events to talk about Indian history and progress, solutions to hardships in Indian Affairs, relocation program; Robert Tabor-“Juvenile Delinquency,” sources? Crime problems, education problems, economic hardship and influence on delinquent behavior, home situation, rehabilitation.

No date


Last 5 pages in journal has lists of names and some addresses.


Notebook #[6]: July 1960-March 1961: Seneca, Catawba, Cherokee, Penobscot, Passamaquoddy, St. Regis, Onondiaga, Arrow, Army Corps of Engineers at Jimersonton




1960 July 12


Concerns about when does the law go into effect? Other concerns/questions are listed, list of elected officials.

1960 July 13


List of names and committees that they head or are a part of.

1960 July 14


Richmond Engineering Co., Clarence Eaton, money listed, sketches of housing construction.

1960 July 15

Catawba Reservation

Talk of who signed up and who did not sign up, taxes, job discrimination, education, Mormon missionaries, Harper S. Ganet-commission to mark historical sites and other projects, water issues, list of names, welfare, buying of land, Hemphill concerns, list of other names.

1960 July 16


Miss Virginia Davis, Rock Hill, Evening Herald, raised concerns, some names and addresses; exerts from The People of the River, Chronicles of the Catawba Nation, by Douglas Summers Brown; list of dates and events that concerned tribal officials, names and addresses; Dr. Frank T. Silbert talked about the study of Catawba language, services on reservation-water, medical etc., names of books wanted to acquire.

1960 July 17


Write to Richard Gibson of St. John’s Methodist Church; Mrs. Kay Birk (?) George, opposed to division, has no land on reservation, housing developments, construction firms, discrimination, Marriage Law of 1959-progress? lack of good jobs, scholarships for college, not giving information to the Catawbes; Mrs. Frances Davis-people moving off of the reservation, future of the reservation, no relocation program assistance, buying land, taxes; went to LDS church-talked about repenting, Indians role in the church; Mr. Woodrow Trimnal-money spent on transportation, , names of trustees; Mrs. Douglas Harris-BIA and trust land, cattle; others thoughts about retaining the land, minerals, wood etc. with the tribe, voting-not being able to read, yet still signing something to vote on, lack of legal counsel.

1960 July 18


Mrs. Rella Wade spoke about opposition to division, selling and ownership of land; quotations from the Evening Herald, rehabilitation.

1960 July 19

Cherokee, NC

List of names of people at the Oenaliftee Village, Cherokee Agency concerns, benefits of termination.

1960 July 20

Cherokee, NC

Went to the Cherokee moccasin factory to see Allen Long, sent photos to people.

No date


List of issues or concerns to discuss with the agency.

1960 Aug. 8


Augusta, Dr Dean Fisher, MD, commission of Dept. of Health and Welfare, agents on Indian Island.

1960 Aug. 9

Indian Island

List of names, Sadie Mitchell-Indian Supervisor, discipline problems, quotation from article, giving Indians names, employment is less of a problem now, interracial marriages, , took photos of kids from high school, topographical drafting and aerial surveying, wages, insert about peace treaty and then massacre; Francis Ranco-talked about money, issues concerning kids; other people talk about unemployment, school, housing, state legislation, Indian trust fund, workcamp; list of names at St. Regis, names and addresses.

1960 Aug. 14


List of names of people on the Onondaga (?) Reservation, issues of the reservation: kids, land, chiefs, clan mothers.

1960 Aug. 25


Assoc. on American Indian Affairs, scholarships, fellowships and loans.

1960 Oct. 21


BMC, Paul Tillich-“The Religious Encounter of East and West,” contact formerly rare, now changing, religious encounters, missionaries, Buddhism vs. Christianity, nationalism, communism.

1961 Jan. 23

Washington, D.C.

Questions of Indians, list of name, comments about Federal land rights, tribal land rights, “Voluntary Home Mortgage Program, loans, economics, restriction on property-concerns of FHA, allotted land, grants.

1961 Jan. 24


Arrow Housing Conf., Nation Housing Center, definition of being an Indian, sale of tribal lands, improvements maintaining tax status, economics, safety of water, sources of help.

1961 Feb. 1

Red House, NY

Running of the school, no parent-teacher assoc., names.

1961 Feb. 2


Mrs. Cordelia Abrams, Office of Seneca Nation, exchange of land, planning for housing, issues concerning Kinzua, names, costs, land allotments, wells, visited the Allegany Indian School at Red House, income breakdowns, informing congress, public, locals.

1961 Feb. 3


Latham Weber, owner of the Salamanca Republican Press, has more sympathy for Indian from Kinzua, Federal agency-lax enforcement, value of money, helping Indian people “make up their minds,” relocation, questioning by personal visit, role of the Quakers-their thoughts, engineers role, community spirit, Indian landowners rights and concerns, cemetery removal, reburial, land rights, roads, homes, reservoir dam; conference with secretary Udall, general interest in Indian welfare, Indian land value, taxes, taking a humane, rather than a legislative approach.

1961 Feb. 15


List of names, FCNL, list of names, task force report, council organizations, AICC and Rights Liberties and Responsibilities of American Indian an scholarship services, task force conclusions, responses by individuals about the state of role of the agency on the reservation.

1961 Feb. 16


Same people as from meeting yesterday, FCNL, Keeler Nash Zimmerman-officer, goals/suggestions of ways, things needed to run things more smoothly, comments from others about the reservation, employment, progress, regulations, Congress’ role.

1961 Feb. 18

New York City, NY

AICC, action anthropology, case study reports, acculturation, thoughts/concerns about the BIA, how is college to help Indians, taxes, need for the democratic process, steering committee’s role, nationwide Indian education effort, leadership, Congress’ reaction to Indian Affairs committee, landownership, results? 

1961 March 28


George D. Heron, Friends yearly meeting, politics, bureaucratic power, difficulties, security, churches, the reservoir as a great resource, educational advancement, violations of treaty, democracy.

1961 March 28


Insert, with years 1791 and 1794, “Cornplanter,” rest of document addressing Red Jacket.

No date


Last two pages are lists of names and addresses, with a list of things to do.


Notebook #[7]: March-June 1961: Haverford (PA.) Indian Conference

Date (s)



1961 March 5


AFSC Round Up, list of names, AICC mailing, helping Indians, NCAI purpose, the ‘Indian Problem,’ “All Indians share a common belief-they stand between God and Americans,” traditionalists needs, regional meetings purpose; Dan Pollitt-migration, farming, capitalism, US policy for non-discrimination in Federal service, education, voting; Frances Levenson, housing; Sol tax, “Indians have been moved from the old frontier to the new frontier,” thought that Indians needed to be civilized, “Indians don’t sink or swim, they just float,” US’s capabilities for being brutal. 

1961 April 7

Haverford College

AICC American Indian Haverford Conference, list of names and occupations and backgrounds, also list of thoughts concerning Indian issues.

1961 April 8


Land issues, treaties, BIA’s actions, freedom vs. citizenship, direct action, AICC, role of politicians, trading, churches, roads, administrative roles; Can Indians get recognition in the UN? Schools intruding onto culture, maintaining culture, relations between whites and Indians, pride in citizenship, rights in education; education’s influence on progress, giving up traditions in a modern world, becoming civilized without losing Indian ways, succumbing to the dominant civilization, what defines the white way? Protection from getting land taken, changing of Indian ways, prestige, prejudice, recognizing citizenship, political action-getting to vote, treaty rights, Sol Tax questions.

1961 April 9


Talk about Sol Tax, “Who shall manage for Indians?” NCAI, AICC, United Pueblo Council helping to unite Indians, financial aid to Indians, “Long account of grievances, attempts to oppress and exterminate Indians,” education, better BIA policy; reserved lands, federal aid, not loans, “do not jeopardize our land rights,” common purpose-to get Indians help, a place in the white man’s world, “local conditions not Federal problem,” “move to state a common purpose,” responsibilities of citizenship; hospitality and friendship, striving for a common goal; presentation of “Wilderness Messiah,” linguistic differences, first five nation council meeting, renewing agreement between Six Nations and US, ceremonies, religion.

1961 April 12

New York

AFSC, NY and Balto Yearly Meeting, list of names; “Rediscovery of Responsibility,” sin and sickness, cost of reformation, “Crisis of Psychiatry and Religion,” Protestant ethic, “The fruit of responsible action is grace,” “learning gives freedom,” “What is guilt?”

1961 April 17

New York City

Interchurch Center, AAIA, “La Farge: shame of breaking 1794 treaty,” civil rights, “gentle sabotage of old personnel,” “liquidating the Indian estate,” introduced to Taos governor, Martina and secretary, Paul Bernal, “US attempts to destroy our religion,” mistreatment by the government, solutions or needs by Indians of Taos from the government-list.

1961 April 25


Indian Rights Assoc. Annual Meeting, D’Arcy McNickle: Indian Expections, whites were not stupid-only less informed, doing things in the best interest of the Indians, present and future of the AICC, treaties, “nobody against development of resources,” maintaining of the reservation; 1955-Alaska-Hearings House Commission, summary-quotes or citations; Peace Corp.- dangers of overseas work and living, issues with and living conditions in Latin America, Africa, Asia, revolution of today, literacy project, citizenship, education.

1961 May 16


AFSC CRC Indian Commission, “Indian Progress joint with FCNL, AFSC, and AECFIA,” violations of treaties, CRC concerns/involvement, race relations.

1961 June 3


James Swanger-Archeology, “Techniques for assembling information,” knowledge about people and environment, imperishable remains.

1961 June 2

(out of order?)

Champion, PA

Seven Springs, Rotary Club-reservation, Indian education, “recognition of Indian contributions to our own culture,” “Geneva code of warfare,” health, security, “reservation is not a concentration camp,” concept of ‘money,’ citizenship, privileges, treaties.

1961 June 3


Archaeology, James Swanger, New Paris, near Bedford-“difficulty of estimating no. of people who lived there;” John Witthoft-anthropologists, linguistics, ethnologists, archeologists, too much interest in the artifacts and not the people, European outlook, “pressure on nature and environment-destruction of valleys,” “Indian communities have survival strength,” “There is no justice in the world anyway,” nuclear family, classification of roles, primitive societies; list of names; relationships, experimental societies, BIA policy, “Both whites and Indians being pushed into the same culture of the future;” Dr. James King, Mrs. Reva Cooper Barse, “Indian problems of social adjustment,” school, Board of Community Relations, drinking; Dr. Angie Debo-IRA, AAIA, NCAI, how Indians lost their land, assimilation, adaptation to environment and retention of identity is good, “set Indians free,” “frontier pressure on Indian property,” land allotments, immigration after Civil War, brought up Nez Pierce, removal stopped, citizenship, quoted from book And Still the Waters Run; Wayne T. Pratt-Assistant Chief for Education, BIA, adult education, community; Duff Wilson-“politics of the Six Nation Confederacy, not Indian, but whiteman problem,” taking of the land, breaking treaties, no protection of land in court, whiteman created Indian problems, list of names.

1961 June 4


Dr. Swanger-entomologist, described group survival characteristics; John Witthoft-“Archeology of Society,” “Anthropologist not interested in history, but in the meaning and broad outline of evolution,” cannibalistic characteristics still present in society, development of government, kinship, breakup of villages; TBH-Hinzua Dam, Reva Barse, role and treatment of women; Angie Debo-pressures against Indians on the frontiers, “US government aided landgrabbers,” struggles against missionaries and outside forces, important dates, uranium promises, Town of Apache, BIA and social and economic improvement, Dixby Tract,

No date


Last page has name Kenneth Crites-BIA Education Jimeau(?).


Notebook #[8]: 1961: Alaska

Date (s)



No date


Insert of travel plans-dates and locations.

No date


Prayer, topics of interest.

1961 June 16


Bob Ferguson- independent film producer-topics of film; Sol Tax, identity, education, losing of religious belief in nature, obsessed with identity, taking away the land-taking away identity.

1961 June 17


Death of Indian babies, Howard McKinley of Ft. Defiance, politics, Lame Deer.

1961 June 20

Seattle, WA

Traveling, list of names, AFSC, Beaver 58, Alaska Rural Development Board, Kake 53-list of names, Arctic Health Research Bureau in Anchorage, AK, Seattle Indian Center, counseling, interpreters.

1961 June 23


Industry, school board advisory, Statehood Act, gas tax, board of directors for town listed, sawmill closed, water and land rights, relocation housing, list of names.

1961 June 25


Ingersoll Hotel, travel log, went to church, took photograph, walked to Sitka National Monument, Sheldon Jackson Museum, list of names and occupations; ANB Hall-Sitka Salmon Derby.

1961 June 26


Silka, Rev. Wilkin T. Willis, schooling, MIA Mt. Edgecumbe (?) school, hospital-diseases, need to train practical nurses, Indians fish, not lumbering; Andrew P. Johnson-treat with Russians, people have little income, salmon fishing, homesteading, Johnson was Navajo field evangelist, struggles, BIA employed Jones to teach Indians how to protect their property; flew to Juneau; personal errands, state museum curator- Mr. E. L. Keithahn.

1961 June 27


Hoonah, Lonnie Anderson-teacher, names of other townspeople and occupations, problems with the school, Excursion Inlet, Glacier Bay, Russian Orthodox Church, community health and welfare, quote from Petersburg Press about tribal rights to duck shooting, establish a summer school, treaty with Russia 1867, tourism, rural development, land the biggest problem, lack of work, Alaska Statehood Act, more names.

1928 June 28

Fairbanks, AK

Talking to Eban Hobson about ducks, took photos of street at midnight, buying oil stoves, people don’t want coal, wintersealing, cycles of the land and animals.

1961 June 29

Fairbanks, AK

Lawrence J. Kozlowski-BIA area field representative, talked about work and who worked for him, natural destruction of homes, issues about shooting ducks; names and addresses of local people, salmon fishing, quote from “The American Scholar,” teachers.

1961 June 30

Fairbanks, AK

Personal errands, list of places to go; list of names and titles, fish and game; Tom Snapp-issues with the game and fish, ducks, birds, migratory issues, aboriginal rights, economics, the 1916 treaty, Bethel trouble, reserve tanks; Florence Weber, Niilo Koponen and Joan, “land problem in Alaska,” workcamp sites, Kay Kennedy at Koponen’s, Isabelle Rogan of Kipnuk, Charles G. Mayse-Beaver, rural land development, Beaver community, Virginia Miller.

1961 July 1


College Alaska, travels, Tetlin Reservation, road systems, Chandalar Reservation, people of Barter Island, relocation, Federal Electric Co., role of the church, hunting, military.

1961 July 2


Dr. Skerland, Dr. Geist, Denalin Highway, hunting and fishing, migration of ducks/geese, Alaska conservation society; Barrow talk to Joash(?) Tukli, Sadie Brower Neakok, whites and hunting/eating, list of names of reserves and numbers about the food supply; Chena Ridge, Kay Hitchcock-knows about Indian land ownership, community integration in an Alent Village, discrimination, “Kaponens have power and running water;” Blazing Alaska’s Trails, Charles Purvis, Frank Alexander, relocating to take advantage of resources, “inadequate definition of Indian use and occupancy,” destruction of land and property, sportsmen and the Indians, “Great need for professional and skilled people,” Chas Purvis-employment discrimination, union carpenter, role of church groups.

1961 July 3


Kozlowski, the Moravian church, health training, Bill Warren-need to study alcoholism.

1961 July 4

Ft. Yukon, AK

Alfred Smith at Beaver, Murray Trelease at Arctic Village(?), other names, employment, role of the church and missionaries, rights to hunt; Harold Kaveolook-Barter Island, welfare, food supplemented by hunting, TB, Enochs Sherman-Eskimo Village, two pages with lists of names; Mrs. Thomas, Martha Teeluk, personal experiences, General George P. McNabe Jr.-hunting survival, ducks, migratory patterns, regulations.

1961 July 6


Martha Teeluk-experiences going to school, working, welfare vs. hunting, relocation, fishing, religion; Bureau of Land Management, Wally and Agnes Harrison-no discrimination, but injustice and ignorance, the role of the BIA, churches etc., the Natives role in education.

1961 July 7


Kay Hitchcock, land rights, definition of ‘occupancy’ vs. ‘residence,’ homesteading, Nenana Mission- St. Marks returned land to state, “recovery of Indian values,” Enoch Sherman, Edith Tegoseak-Eskimo Village, health problems, Presbyterian Hospitality House, liquor problem, adoptions; housing situations/accommodations.

1961 July 9


To Nazarene church.

1961 July 10


Plane troubles, small talk about ‘Indian problems,’ hunting, regulating shooting by Eskimos, use of seal meat, conflict with sportsmen, employment, family problems.

1961 July 11


Barrow, John Andrews, employment, education, Sadie Neakok, family life, social life, food prices, welfare, hunting, natural gas, land ownership, caribou hunt, took pictures; Barrow Village Council-aboriginal rights, hunting rights, townsite survey needed, Navy impounded records about gas reserves, Alaska Native Industries Corp.

1961 July 12


List of names/addresses, Christian Missionary Alliance, Edith Bullock-political education, Arctic Health Research Land in Anchorage, liquor is the first problem, housing, education, “people need pride in their race,” recreation facilities, water and sanitation, AEC Public Relations, “Operation Chariot,” meeting with Wilson Eckels, Southern Baptists.

1961 July 13


Katzebue, village council, names of people, Dr. James Louis Giddings, gold hunting in Alaska, Operation Chariot, Christians role, list of names, singing hymns in English and then Eskimo, Dr. Seymour Parker.

1961 July 14


La Verne Madigan, Dr. Forbes, Dr. Blackburn-Alaska Council of Churches, list of people and their reactions to religion in the villages, explanation of the dances, family names.

1961 July 15


Kotzebue, donation of money and goods to the church, sermon at Church, “Church members get to know each other thru their testimony,” education, Don Moline.

1961 July 16


Kotzebue Friends Church, went to Sunday School, plane troubles, some duck shooting done out of season.

1961 July 17


John Thomas, Baptist Minister, talked about people needing ducks in the spring because of hunger, schooling, Percy Ipalook-no restrictions on caribou now, or migratory birds, “People afraid to shoot out of season,” food sources scarce, controversies involving the reservation, “People can be wise without being schooled,” vocational schooling.

1961 July 18


Nome, Robert Grant-field representative for BIA-returning to villages, Paul Tiulana-King Islander, “Judicial system doesn’t give Natives square deal,” not informed of their rights, move to mainland, need education/school for kids, village council, “Homestead law be modified to fit needs of Natives?” Questions raised about reservation status; Arthur Nagozauk, Sr., roads to mining areas, Natives don’t know how to homestead, starting businesses, Catholic Fathers Carroll and Neview-have no answer to problems, List of names and resources (?), use of nuclear explosives.

1961 July 20


Unalakleet, Jack Koutchak-need to shoot duck, is main food in spring besides seal, Dale Friemiring-Unalakleet lodge, Mrs. Quibbermann, Nome is a bad place for a vocational school, commercial fishing air freight to Anchorage, education; Alfred White-Covenant School, send info on Colonial Dames Nurses, welfare, CINVA, change in economy, capitalism vs. professional management; John Moore principal-confusion among people when they are searching for leadership, things rapidly changing, mineral rights do not go with homesteads, need recreation and no delinquency.

1961 July 21


Frank Degnan-mayor and cab driver, lots of minerals, church wants incorporation, ‘Reservation Gamblers,’ ANB, mineral rights, Frank Ryan, flew on plane, description of surroundings, weather; Bethel, Tundra Shack, Max Lieb-died 1965, list of some names and their thoughts on the lifestyle, housing, water, land, “Education Reserve,” “need for vocational training,” hospitals, gold miners, duck shooting.

1961 July 23


Ray Christianson, licenses for hunting and boats, taking away guns, villages, opposed to word ‘reservation.’

1961 July 24


Dale Hollingsworth-aboriginal rights, legality of migratory bird problem, Charles and Nora Guinn-primitive coastal villages, fuel and water problems, problems with liquor, a few names and addresses.

1961 July 25

Anchorage, AK

Roosevelt Hotel, Mrs. Ella H. Craig-BIA acting field representative.

1961 July 26


Mrs. Ella H. Craig, social worker, Mrs. Cledia F. Jones Relocation officer; Mike Alex-Eklutna-Tanaina Indians, fishing, talk of bad weather, military base interferes with fishing, welfare, reactions to the Wildlife Reserve; Tyonek-Tanaina Indians-fishing, policing by airplane; Nickefor Alexan, vocational training, want extended reservation, homesteading, housing, jobs; Jacob Stephan-1939 Tyonek incorporated, aboriginal rights, Northern Christian Crusaders, land ownership, quoted from the Anchorage Daily Times-about the “lottery of oil leases in this area.”

1961 July 27


Fred Frakes-pilot of plane, talked about condition of the local people, education, adult education programs, Seldovia-Jack English Commissioner Insurance, etc.; Ted Stevens-was counsel to Fred Seaton, Tyonek land status, no aboriginal rights, game reserve for Natives, fishing, didn’t want special status for Natives.

1961 July 29

Anchorage and Juneau, AK

Cadmus Zacheus Gordon, Teen-Age club; Roy Peratrovich, Angoon Assoc.; Tex Hoffman-evaluation of land status.

1961 July 30


Sen. Frank Peratrovich, thoughts about taking the directors’ job, too many obligations, “wants more local authority.”

1961 July 31

Seattle, WA

Went to U of W Faculty Club, met with Cletus and Louise Oakley, Irwin Hogenaner, and Jack and Ethel Haller.

1961 Aug. 1


Percy Mellis (?) just back from AK, comments about kids, Philes Nash appointed commissioner, assignment of officers to different reservations, Father Emmet Hoffman, recreation, AFSC workcamp.

1961 Aug. 2


To Lame Deer, talked about Indians and workcamp with Mr. Bent, met with people at workcamp for breakfast, list of their names; Dallas Littlehead, Mae Jefferson, Mike Hornblow, Father Peter Powell, list of other names.

1961 Aug. 5


Harold Jernigan to Forsyth, bus to Dickinson, signature of Percy Reynolds Mandaree, with #165 and N. D., Powwow, Deborah Hertz-Independent Congregational Church.

1961 Aug. 8


39 days in Alaska, 54 days from home, list of some names.

1961 Aug. 16


List of names: Phillo (?) Nash, Mangan, Ed Davis, Dr. Willis King, list of names of nurses at the Penna Hospital; took photos in Kotzebue, other names.

No date


List of expenses for travel, food, lodging, and misc.

1960 Feb. 15 (out of order?)


John Woodenlegs, talks about philosophy about his people, and taking them from the Cheyenne way of life, progress.

No date


List of project including recreation projects and health programs.

No date


Cat’s Cradle photos, economy, mining, wildlife, Peace Corp., churches, homesteads.

No date


Two pages of a list of names.


Notebook #[9]: August 1961- 1962: Seneca Allegany, Midwater ceremony, Seneca names and addresses




Aug. (no other date)


Allegany Reservation with Al Rosenberg, list of names of other present.

No date


Office of Seneca Nation, list of names, Seneca constitution, no votes for women, too much work, no breaks, outlook on the community, equal land, questionnaire results, economical value of nation of hunting, fishing, licenses, utilities loss-loss of jobs, TAMS report, power of the military, Vigil line, The Hopi Message, names.

1961 Dec. 3


AFSC Indian Committee, Chase Hall, Haverford, list of those present, opportunity for discussion, ethics of community intervention, present opportunities in US Indian Affairs, cooperation with BIA, response to concerns, program priorities, costs, Crownpoint Development, reports from Seattle, Pasadena, Family Peace Commission, Indian Program Secretary, Des Moines, Denver, San Francisco, Portland, Phila National Committee; overall impression-use for unallocated funds, AFSC to work with Indians; reports from Kinzua and Seneca, gave the National Representatives Role; Evaluation criteria, talked about the brochure, Kent McKenzie and ‘The Exiles.’

1961 Dec. 27

Washington D.C.

Went with Lawrence Lindley, Newton Edwards, John Carver, Philleo Nash, Bob Burnette; “for relaxation of enforcement of regulations on shooting ducks,” legality of land ownership, compensation; ‘The Code of Handsome Lake,’ talked about a ceremony, dances, songs, list of the process.

1962 Jan. 23


Council on Indian Affairs, Lee Oscar, Newton Edwards, Tillie Walker, Tennelly-church support for AA, fishwork plant discussion, public housing, Brethren study on Indian work and culture, counseling, vocational education; “Pockets of Poverty,” William Batt, Jr.-Area Director Redevelopment Authority, “The Economics of Poverty,” unemployment, growth, migration to cities; John C. Bennett-Prof. Of Social Ethics, “Ethics of Poverty,” interaction between feelings of the rich and the poor, equality in all social schemes; BIA at the Cheyenne River, Indian leasing land, land sales, land claims, 1936 Act to reorganize Alaska and establish reservation, controversies.

1962 Jan. 24


Assoc. Exec. Committee-Friends on Indian Affairs, AFSC, Paul Turner, Dan Houghton, Levinus Pamter, list of events for the seminar; panel on housing, relations with the government, problem of community development, cultural understanding, or mutual understanding, development, and education; list of harvesting projects; AFC Wallace: Cultural Composition of the Handsome Lake Religion, sin is to cause the end of the world, the ‘Old Religion’ vs. the ‘New Religion,’ traditional behavior.

1962 Jan. 30


Discussion of ‘futile,’ who’s in power? Shelters for survival, “Apologies to the Iroquois.”

1962 Feb. 7


IRA, Connor Spaeth (?) Lindley Hetzel, nurses need instruction, discrimination, education, list of calculations.

1962 Feb. 10


List of names at Dudley hotel, Salamanca.

1962 Feb. 11


Dudley hotel, Longhouse, list of names; I’dos (?) Medicine Society sketch of what it looks like, description, dance.

1962 April 10


Indian Rights Assoc., Dr. Philleo Mash, “tribute to distinguished names in 2nd and 3rd generations on IRA board, BIA appreciative of IRA support and criticism,” Ben Franklin, Patrick Henry, and James Wilson were the first Indian Commissioners, 1882 IRA founded, loss of land, schooling, 1887 allotment, Oil-Teapot Dome and Mescalero land scandals, Merian Report, Rhoads and Scattergood start of modern era of BIA, cut-backs after WWII, Policy-Task Force Consultation, federal supervision, technical assistance, irrigation-1867, forest management, soil and water conservation, objective of BIA is for full participation, emphasis on developmental aspect, welfare, law and order, property managers, developmental functions, relocation, termination, economic development, education. 

1962 May 7


Metropolitan Museum, AAIA, La Farge-describes present situation, rights of Natives in Alaska, 1787 NW Ordinance-“in the most good faith,” greed, heirship problems, checkerboarding, exploitation, industry, Indian Revolving Loan Fund, repayment, purchasing land, issues with personnel; Guy Okahok- problems with birds in Barrow, shoot for food, not sport, arrest of people hunting illegally, hunting rights and regulations, Naval Petroleum Reserve, conservation; Philleo Nash-bear hunters, development, schools, vocational, adult education, employment, financial assistance, budget work, proposed division of Economic Development in BIA, employment assistance-formerly called relocation, rapid growth, reservation system.

1962 May 9

New York City, NY

Council on Indian Affairs, Russ Carter, Mrs. Thelma Murray, Claire Raudall, King Island photos by Tiulana, changes in polar bear and walrus population, hunters, fish and wildlife director and agents, aboriginal hunting and property rights, surviving in the Arctic, issues with dogs, gas problem in Barrow, Inupiat National Monument for conservation, Barter Island, sharing of mineral rights, claiming water rights, financial interest against reservations and aboriginal rights, the role of the church, ANB a tool of the Alaskan delegation and democratic politically, economy, Project Chariot-opposition, land, health, AEC experimentation in derogation of Native land rights, ecology dependent upon lichens, natural resources which are diminishing.

No date


List of books or resources: History of the NY Iroquois, Iroquois Culture, Iroquoian Tribes, The Iroquois; list of names of WCAU-TU, list of other names.

No date


List of names under heading: Allegany.

1961 Nov. 12 (out of order?)


Clinton Richardson-Cherokee at Hav. College Conference, Roanoke River, future of the next generation.

1961 Nov. 11 (out of order?)


Directions to Rickard’s, words, and a drawing; Clinton Richard-Medicine Man, rights of Indian to sell land.

No date


List of names, some addresses.


Notebook #[10]: June-August 1962: Alaska

Date (s)



No date


List of mileage.

1962 June 15

Tulsa, NM

Philbrook Art Center, Appleton-“Indian Arts of the Americas,” Seribners, Mrs. Jeanne Snodgrass, Paul A. Rossi, field notes about appreciation of Indian ways, trappers, the white mountain man copying the Indian’s ways, methods of warfare, Stewart Chase, Taos artists.

1962 June 17


Apache Summit, Mescalero, Mr. And Mrs. Wendell Chino, liquor problem, displacement, unemployment, Pita Cajete-nurse, hospital issues, Solon Sombrero-took photo of Chino.

1962 June 18

San Carlos

Mr. Al Purchase-land operations, Marvin Mull, Harrison Porter, Seneca Boys Camp, workcamp at Seneca, Mrs. King will supervise the girls camp, cutting wood, bob Neal, Joe Bullis; Michael Wayne Bair-visited hospital, Camp Pendleton, CA.

1962 June 21

Los Angeles, CA to Seattle, WA

Left from Los Angeles on plane to Seattle, WA.

1962 June 22

Fairbanks, AK

Alfred Nilima, LA Indian Center, Delbert Eningowuk, Chas Purvis, Tom Snapp, Walter Lord-wants copy of Indian Truth TBA article, paying for schooling, list of other names; Kay Hitchcock and Chas Purvis-in support of the Native’s position, Kozlowski and Carroll favor a Native Rights Assoc., FHA influenced by ANRA better than by BIA, linguistics, Slotnik history; Rev. Warren-troubles; Larry Brayton and Bob Edwards- KFRB, quote from the News Miner about Alaska meat production and flooding; Minto hunting area, dependence on lakes for fish and ducks, encroachment of homesteaders, loss of wildlife/game, BLM denied claims; list of names; Mr. and Mrs. Fred John filed for Indian land-had no response, schoolteachers, churches, local control; Native Land Selection program (Ted Stevens), aboriginal rights, white hunters, illegal hunting.

1962 June 23

Fairbanks, AK

Aboriginal rights, property rights, inheritance, capitalism vs. state communism, history, legality, strategy-timing, education; list of names; Minto-state withdrawing land by river, state has filed for land, Natives’ opposition, Natives need help-education; list of names under heading Tanana.

1962 June 24

Tanana, AK

Talk about electric power, schooling, land being taken by the state, land rights? Business, hunting and fishing restricted, home for elderly a problem, flooding prevention and control, lack of jobs because of lack of education, relocation, trespassing; costs for hunting too high for people who need to hunt; crowded by FAA and Air Force, shooting out of season, economy, technical help for development, commercial fishing, education, timber, minerals, water power, flooding, land education, hunting and fishing tran., no land titles, interracial marriages-then the white man takes over the land and house, BLM surveyed new townsite, building of a community hall, need a vocational school, building roads, cemetery rights, natural rights of people; list of names of people heading committees, “When I stand up to speak, my mind sits down.” 

1962 June 25


Meeting in community building, list of names, Ramart Dam inevitable, task force-list of names, taking of land rights, need jobs, moving in of whites, outrageous price of gas, whites stealing from each other, the Natives are blamed, drop-out problem, game advisory board, school advisory board, surveying land, overcrowding of school, cooperation with ANRA, need vocational HS here, industry needed, where to put old people? Problem of duck hunting, flooding, storage space for food, sanitation, people in debt, BIA employment, need survey-long range planning, idea of restricted deed-advantages/disadvantages, spending by Air Force, have asked for Rural Development Commission for help, cooperation.

1962 June 26


Ralph Purdue, white/Native conflict in meeting, asking for help, not receiving, or receiving adequately, fear of reservations.

1962 June 27

Fairbanks, AK

Criticism of outsiders, comments from the paper, welfare.

1962 June 28


Talked with real estate man, relations between white and Native, Rural Development Boards, oil leases.

1962 June 29


Went to airport, drove to Chena Ridge, visited with Koponens, talk about candidate for state rep.-Pearson.

1962 June 30

Fairbanks, AK

Visited Shermans in Fairbanks, met family, ice caves for storing meat in, heating of a house.

1962 July 1

Fairbanks, AK

Went to hospital for nosebleed, Chas Purvis brought letters, talked with Rev. Loudborg, talked with ned Nusungunya and Rev. Bills; at Kay Hitchcock’s talked with Mrs. Collene Snapp Redman-need for community development, promotion of reservations, relocation, bilingual children, alcohol problem, need for dental care, brought in Dr. Milo Fritz-mobile dental and eye care? Operations are done in a school room, no rehabilitation for alcoholics, study on housing, Native land selection program.

1962 July 2

Seattle, WA

AFSC staff meeting, list of names, Indian education program, counseling students, working with tribal leaders, local and state education/school system, communication to Pasadena, fund raisers, “Indian education here is a Program, not a project with numerical, statistical results,” home relations, fund-raising, white damage to society, state supervision of Indian schools? Book-An Eskimo Village in the Modern World,” by CC Hughes and JM Hughes.

1962 July 3


At the Fair, Atlas of Canada, Dept. Mines and Technical Surveys, quoted from Mexican Song, French exhibit, need for recreation areas.

1962 July 4


Jim Owens and Susa Assmoboine Wolf Point, adopted the white culture, need to gain help of spirits.

1962 July 5


Harry Burks wants a copy of the Tanana report.

1962 July 8

San Diego, CA

Visited the San Diego Zoo, quotes from the book, An Outline of Man’s Knowledge of the Modern World, by Lyman Bryson, quotes from the book A New History of the US, by William Miller, “treatment of Natives not a racial matter any more than that of the unemployed who as Fortune said (Oct. ’39) ‘are sick twice as often as their neighbor,’” it is now time for interracial marriages, interbreeding, assimilation.

1962 July 11


Rainbow, Norra Illsley, damages done by mismanagement of forest, logging contract, Mission Indian Federation-Pearl Willis, Soboba-met brother Sepherino, annexation to Eastern Municipal Water District, maintenance of distribution system and actual cost of water.

1962 July 12


With Norm Illsley, visit to Morongo, Santa Rosa, inadequate law enforcement, trash on reservation, force/encourage Indian who own land to sell, cheating the Indians in sales and trade, irrigation system.

1962 July 15


List of mileage and went to Knott’s Berry Farm, Disneyland.

1962 July 17


Went to AFSC Pasadena, Ed Sanders, Bill King, Metropolitan Hospital, Jean Eber, Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, list of names.

1962 July 18

Pasadena, California

Difficulty of communication with Phila, statement of policy, value of statement, Pam Coe’s paper, “Role of the Community Development Worker.”

1962 July 19


Bylthe, Parker-list of acres-planned/unplanned, have no leasing authority, churches, “wished missionaries hadn’t come,” no Native religion; Phoenix-Chuck F. Gritzner-Commissioner of Indian Affairs-Peace Corp. at Sacaton, problems, Black Elk Speaks, John Neihardt.

1962 July 20


Car troubles, Bill King-Supt. Salt River Indian Reservation, Popago Farms a flop, problems with Indian youth, need for community worker, control of the situation, management firm to consult on land use, need for service groups help.

1962 July 21


Seneca, Bob Neal, Crown Point Charcoal Co., revival camp meeting of the Miracle Church, Kinishba ruins, Diamond Creek camp.

1962 July 22


Mrs. Lester Oliver (white) adopted two Apache girls, problems of the Natives, come to see problems, not so much to help with the problems, noted phone calls.

1962 July 23


Window Rock Lodge, list of names, Pitney Bowes stamping machine; John McPhee-Admin. Assist. to chairman, IBM room, took photo of weaver, Arts and Crafts-YA A THE-Museum.

1962 July 24

Canyon de Chelly, AZ

Campground, drove to Many Farms, Round Rock, Rock Point, went to Four Corners.

1962 July 25

Four Corners, Ignacio, Colo.

Went by BIA school, Red Cloud community, Towaoc rehabilitation program, Dan Nerfert-Adult Education, Philip coyote, Bob White; Ignacio, Colo.-Mrs. Catherine John, David Box, Colorado University research;, summer training, water, septic tanks, modern houses, employment, checkerboarding, Navajo Dam recreation potential, grazing land, want better income.

1962 July 26

Dulce, Cuba, and Santa Fe, NM

Dulce-James Garcia, interested in Alaskan Indians, progressive, Meeker, Forester, family plan; Cuba-Randy and Marcy Velarde, Mrs. Hoch, Mrs. Pete Fisher, Gene Garrison; Santa Fe-Adobe Court.

1962 July 27

Santa Fe, NM

AK Warren, Director of Relations, Indian school ideas, political support, planned a national Institution for Indian Arts and Crafts, interracial marriages, local opposition, desire for vocational school, need for trades training, summer vocational work for youth, Dr. George Boyce, Barbara Wyler, Chas E. Minton-against the art school, rushed planning; Martin Vigil-thoughts on the art school; Oliver Lafarge-mixed feeling about the art school; Taos-fiesta and crowning of queen.

1962 July 28

NM and CO

Dorothy Brett, fiesta parade, Tony Bernal-need for Santa Fe school, Claud Anderson-Pueblo divided about exploitation of Blue Lake, John Rainer and Tony Reyna for development, drove to Colorado Springs, Colo.

1962 July 29

Colorado Springs, Denver and Boulder, Colo.

Drove around college, at Denver-met with Mr. and Mrs. Fred Beaver, Mrs. Hicky, at the Denver Art Museum, at Boulder-phoned home.

1962 July 30


Pine Ridge, Edgar Redcloud, Don Pabla-Scottsdale trader; Edgar Redcloud-family history, struggles; Clarence Allen-interested in workcamp, director of Oglalla Sioux Youth Enterprise; William Horncloud and Nancy-recent travels, leasing of land, animals, problems with learning the white way of life, understanding the value of money; went to Native American Church for purification, talk of different heavens; C. Hobart Keith, JP BaldEagle, Chiefs Red Cloud, Jake Herman, Bob Burnette, Calvin Larvey, Moses Two Bulls, William Whirlwind-Horse Chairman, Red Fish; pay rates.

1962 Aug. 1


Eagle Butte, Howard Dushame, Andy LeBeau, happy with Clark report, Cherry Creek Community Well Reservation Utilities Act, cattle repayment, education, welfare; Rosebud-Bob Burnette, Cato Velandra, Calvin Velandra, Mrs. Velandra, Charley , trip to tribal ranch, problem of welfare, stealing of Indian land.

1962 Aug. 2


Rosebud, Mr. Harold W. Skunk, Ghost Hawk Camp, hunting and fishing licenses, need opportunity, not money, police discrimination, Barney Old Coyote, Henry Crow Dog, “land is not the answer.”

1962 Aug. 3


Oscar Howe-wants advancement of Indian art, characteristics of art, symbols, colors; BIA’s philosophy regarding vocational schools? –legalities, churches, sportsmen, schools; Indian music, use of reservations, list of names and books?

1962 Aug. 3


List of places, and names, issues to be discussed.

1962 Aug. 5


List of mileage fro North Wales to Haverford.

1962 Aug. 6


List of costs for food, lodging, travel, etc.

No date


Last page is a list of names and some addresses.


Notebook #[11]: September 1962-May 1963: Alaska




1962 Sept. 3

Mohawk, AK

Talk on Indians and Eskimos in Alaska.

1962 Sept. 4

Mohawk, AK

Documents on Indians and Dependant peoples, printed Philippina Legislature Official Gazette and other reports.

1962 Sept. 3-5

Mohawk, AK

List of names, including, Mrs. Chamberlain, Misses Stevenson, Mrs. McGee, then under heading Senecas, list of other names, Mildred Snow Garlow, Dorothy Kennedy, Mrs. Emily Jack, Corbet Sundown.

1962 Sept. 15


Indian Day Allegany and Cornplanter, Melvin Patterson, Mrs. Ireland, schooling, the four good words of the great law of peace, Karen Rickard, Harold Parker, Lester Junerson; book notes from Pioneer Life or Thirty Years a Hunter, by Philip Tome; Ed Curry, Albert Jones, Effie Johnson, Jack Kennedy, Chief Corbett Sundown, Mildred Garlow, Walter and Dorothy Jimerson; Jimersontown Presbyterian Church, list of names; needs of the community-vocational training, opportunities, sources of scholarship, learn from Indians, Melvin Patterson, different sides to curriculum problem.

1962 Sept. 21


CRC, AFSC, “Identity, Marginality, Leadership,” P. Ottenburg-psychiatrist gave speech; Helen Baker-black/white relationships, pioneers, leaders; Chuck McEvers-leadership in Indian affairs, loyalty to tribe or clan, identity, mobility.

1962 Sept. 22


Indian Committee, conversations with Dave McAllester, Chuck McEvers about Peyote, AFSC workers gaining entry into Indian community, Oakland Intertribal Friendship Home need for money and support, teachers instead of missionaries, architecture, Indian education, advisory and financial counseling, relations with Washington State Public Instruction, program review, law and order in western Washington.

1962 Oct. 24


Bell Tel Conference, Barclay Hotel, indication of ability to think, responsibility of administration, the Liberal Arts major-are they as focused or specialized? Vs. advanced or specific degrees, employment in public utility businesses, creativity of selling ideas, role of mathematics.

1962 Oct. 25


Bell Tel. Faculty Conference, Ridley Park, King of Prussia, Jack White, Homer Geeber, Bernard Morvill, TBH.

1962 Oct. 26


Barclay Hotel, George Bird-management Trainee Supervisor, no formal interdependent training program now, IMDIP selection of the boss, progressive, good counselor, not personality or skill, but on performance, achievement; Career Analysis and Development Board, CAD board, employment.

1962 Nov. 20


AFSC Indian committee, “Wes Jiss confidential report on Intertribal Friendship House to be censored and reduplicated and distributed more widely,” program priorities, search for leaders, field experience, return to the community, learning the language of the people of the community, peyote.

1962 Nov. 20 (noted from report on Nov. 16, 1962


“The Friend,” the Christian Doctrine of Wealth, “wealth is the gift of God, and not man’s possession to be used as he may desire,” “The Christian economy should be for the best possible use of available natural and technical resources for the satisfaction of human needs and the promotion of human welfare-to release human beings from the economic necessity of being employed in useless, wasteful or degrading tasks.”

1963 Jan. 9

New York City

Galen Weaver, betty Rosenthal, Miss Hoyt, John Provinse, TBA, National Service Corps bill introduced today, Peace Corps selection, need assistance of our affluent society, Indians ethics, opportunities in the Peace Corps.

1963 Jan. 19


Church of the Good Shepard, Irving, Peter Doctor Memorial Scholarship, Allan Jimerson, Maxwell Lez, Helen Printup, C and P Seneca, list of others present.

1963 Jan. 21


Council on Indian Affairs, NCAI office, list of names, Ray Sweazy-boyscouting for Indian boys, Dr. Adair-Indians’ responses to JFK’s State of the Nation Address, Chicago American Indian Center-giving the Indian an identity, recreation, welfare, self-help housing, Pine Ridge issues, community development, gardens, Tribal Business Organization and the Tribal Court; Burnett-“Operation Constitution,” future meeting, schooling is failing the Native boys-concerns.

1963 Jan. 22

Washington, D.C.

Dept. of the Interior Building, council nominations, BIA Information Bureau function, National Service Corps. and Youth Conservation Corps., education; R. Carter-role of the church, energizing the public works program, agriculture office, Indian legislation, adult education, vocational, land purchase for Indians.

1963 March 21


Phila yearly meeting, Elizabeth Warminster-responsibility of members in meeting activities; William Plummer, Jr., developing financial responsibility, recruiting new members, quality of ministry, purpose of education.

1963 April 23

Washington, D.C.

Lazarus and Schifter office, list of names of those present, “law in defiance of Indian wishes,” “need Republican support to get bill passed,” hunting and trapping, Youth Conservation Corps., employment of Indians, education, agriculture, housing.

1963 April 24

Washington, D.C.

Secretary of the Interior’s Conference room, list of names present, BIA at Camp David conferring, BIA’s responsibilities in Alaska, stewardship for Natives, legal regulations, homesteading, land titles, law and order, mineral rights, conservation; Force Account hiring instead of contract, road building, scholarship service, creation and concept of reservations, economics, role of the church.

1963 May 6


AAIA annual meeting, Oliver LaFarge address, list of names and roles, employment.

1963 May 21


AFSC Indian Committee, education program in Seattle and Alaska, recreation and education workers, workcamp at New Town, no local cooperation, National Service Corps and American Indians.

No date


Last page is a list of names and addresses.


Notebook #[12]: June 1963: Alaska, Flathead, North Cheyenne, Seattle

Date (s)



1963 June 2


Insert on flight information.

No date


At Sandy Jensen’s house, fishing, copper mines, hunting, ANB’s role in the Copper Field area, Frank Anderson-projects development officer, radioactivity at Anaktiwak Pass (?), last US mail by dogsled.

1963 June 3


BIA Jengs Forschang, Mrs. Rhoda Thomas, Jean and Dan Frank-teachers, Frank Anderson-Economic Development Officer, loans, role of churches, educational development, study of dropouts, AFSC sanitation system, community development, discussion of Native Land Corps, list of names, school building, airplane crashes.

1963 June 4


Travels, personal errands.

1963 June 5


Travels, Selma Titus-her lifestyle, Rev. Gordon Olson-Assembly of God Church, postmasters, BLM interprets regulations, hunting; Lucy Frank, Jack Burnette, Earl Lamb is teacher, hunting licenses, trapping industry; town hall meeting, moving the town? Loss of land, protecting the land, report of lost men.

1963 June 6

Tanana, Alaska

Report of lost men-they were found, overspending, welfare burden, trapping and hunting, caribou and moose, unemployment, jobs for Natives, duck hunting, licenses, recreational value of the land, community development, development of resources, cooperation, support the leaders, “Apache determination instead of termination,” “only salvation is thru education and training;” rights of citizenship, right to vote, education, ADC for Natives, USPHS hospitals, “we are cursed by our own ignorance,” land is the major problem, quoted to films, “movie of the value of industrialization,” taxpayers role, TBA compensation costs, BIA has no mandate from Congress to serve Alask, “relocation should be for the people’s benefit,” costs to be included in project costs, housing; Rampart Committee, list of names, “land is base of the economy,” village relocation.

1963 June 7


Committee reports, Ralph Purvis-economics report, Rock-fish and game report, Ketzler-Rampart report, Joe Newman-Holy Cross, education, conservation with Bishop Gordon and Mrs. Charlotte Cleveland, Bob Bennett-vocational schools, John Melville-comments on labor and economics, voting, education vs. quick profit, traders, Bennett-villages should have planning committees, loans for development, recommendation for state legislative appointment, outside pressures, preparing for children’s future, lawyers and legal help, Art Nagozruk-tribal operations officer, BLM taking/delegating unoccupied land, “Alaska Land Lines,” Neal Jenson, Jr., BIA housing officer, architecture, Daniel Jones, Fairbanks BLM manager, potlatch in the evening.

1963 June 8

Tanana, Alaska

Inter-village communication, Jay Harwood, Prof. McKinnon, Bill James, segregation-Fairbanks is the wrong place for a vocational or Indian boarding school, Native Dances, took photo of photo of Sulivan Dasco.

No date


List of delegates who were elected by their village councils this year and other invited guests, ways to work with people and the land.

1963 June 9


Flight from Nenana to Fairbanks.

1963 June 10


Goldschmidt report USDA, Dr. William Pruitt-biologist, life based on resources, increase of moose, caribou declined, relocation, clearing of the land, Rawpart-plant succession, climate changes, improper land use, quoted from book The Desperate People, by farley Mowat, need for Natives skilled in biology, University of Alaska Geology Survey, other journal citations.

1963 June 11

Fairbanks, AK

RG Robertson-Deputy Minister of Northern Affairs, economic prospects, school dropouts, Tom Snapp-stopping Native dancing without alternative, churches, alcohol, socio-economic problems, Mrs. Triggs BIA to Shermans.

1963 June 12

Fairbanks, AK to Seattle, WA

Took flight from Fairbanks, AK to Seattle, WA, American Indian Professional Associates address and names; AFSC Indian committee-list of names, scholarships, academics.

1963 June 13

Seattle, WA

Chuck McEvers, Assistant Area Director for Community Services.

1963 June 14


Conferences and seminars to develop ability to analyze problems, proposal written up, write a report for AFSC; Indian Center, Pearl Warren, “reservations have strong councils, but not represented on commission to decide on affairs involved in termination,” American Indian Professional Associates, lawyers, public relations, fighting the BIA for approval; University Friends monthly meeting, names.

1963 June 15


A list of names that he met with, BIA selling land without Indians’ consent, treaty provisions, water control.

1963 June 16


Blue Lake, Bay of Flathead, tribally owned cabin and resort area, Walter McDonald, surplus power, Canadian Treaty and Libby Dam, validity of treaty.

1963 June 17

Missoula, MT

Missoula Mont, rental car troubles, Mont. Intertribal Policy Board, jurisdiction on reservations, reclamation, Northern Cheyenne Tribal Council meeting, list of names from Lame Deer, Busby, Muddy, Ashland, and Birney, sketch of morning star tribal symbol, reports given about land and cattle, report on Towist (?) Center; Kronmiller-difficulties working with the tribe, land allotments, housing, compromise, education. 

1963 June 18


BIA Conference on Employment Assistance, independence, work habits, culture of poverty, influence/effects of relocation.

1963 June 19


ASEE, MHD, sketches of explanations (?), International Technical Aid, Office of Human Resources and Social Development, pay rates and hiring of employees.

1963 June 20


ASEE, session 156, computers, JT Elbrod, MAD language, programming, other computer programs, and issues, discussion, math courses, bulletin of Alaska issues.

Not sure of date


Letter from 1964 Feb. 12 (?) 1964 Crisis for Senecas sent to John Thomas, list of places.

No date


List of names of villages and on the map locations.

1963 June


Christian country, Knowles, Indian ownership, recreational area, other questions. “Does authorization of the dam violate Indian rights?” “Promises are cheap.” History, politics, need for teachers, community development, social and spiritual factors, economic development, welfare, land allotments, and individual ownership.

 No date


On page 85-87-list of names and addresses.

No date


List of costs for travel.

No date


List of names.

No date


List of names and tribes that the people belong to (?).

No date


Playback of tape no. 4, talks about relocation project, recreation, costs, value of reservation, resources, permanent employment opportunities.


Notebook #[13]: July 1963-May 1964: Indian Hannah




No date


The Philadelphia Yearly meeting of Friends, with concerns about the Seneca Indians, appeal to the conference to resolve the differences between house and senate, rehabilitation fund, termination amendment.

1963 July 3


CRC, on August 28-protest march to Washington D.C. if filibuster Administration’s Civil Rights Bill is not yet endorsed by Bartlett.

1963 Oct. 4


AFSC, CRC, “problem of Negro kids staying in school,” “Civil rights don’t prevent frustration,” unemployment, training, retaining the tribal ways, economics, urbanization, emphasis on the youth, “work on symptoms, instead of the causes,” poverty, welfare, public housing, race and poverty are interrelated.

1963 Oct. 5


AFSC Indian, Federal Power Commission and Natural Gas, group identity, Indian Health, Water, and Sanitation, Force Account Work.

1963 Oct. 21


Council on Indian Affairs, list of those present; Melvin Thom of the National Indian Youth Council-issues with kids going to college and leaving the reservation, unifying, national perspective; Herb Blatchford-Executive Director-NIYC, education, Boulder workshop; Bishop Gordon-lived in Alaska 21 years, taught at BIA Alaska schools, not an expert on Alaska Indian Rights (land and other), the expanse of the land, ownership vs. having a land title in hand, modern medicine; Burnette-with Crow delegation, council members favoring legislation opposed by NCAI, Force Account fight, Indians to make mistakes, but retain pride; Joseply-indifference to NCAI by council members, Indians living with the solutions; Byler-reflecting Indian way of thinking, fighting for the whole society, not just the Indian; other thoughts and comments about the resolution to land issues, unconstitutional process of dealing with issues, need a common front, opposition to low interest rates.

1963 Oct. 22


Council on Indian Affairs, list of those present, civil rights, resolution of National Council of Churches, is the BLM the enemy-not providing jobs? Recreation potential, homesteaders, regularization of land claim title, economic use of land, BIA trusteeship responsibility, protecting trapping lines, “greater liberality for Native individual title,” police protection, land ‘ownership,’ mineral revenues, supporting the state, funding, Nenana welfare economy, political pressures on the Indian, “Need to define land rights;” Council at the Department of the Interior, sanitation program, Branch of Roads duties, use of government surplus, housing and development, Indian housing, sense of community, education.

1963 Oct. 25-27


Allegany Reservation, list of names, also list of mileage and times, purchased a pack basket and rattle from May Halftown, stopped to visit Harriet and Benny Pierce.

1963 Nov. 1


Prof. Biebuyck (?), list of names.

1963 Nov. 24


AFSC Indian community Round-up, Perrdle (?) Hill, list of names, approval of Force Account construction work, field visits and budget provision for travel, Pyramid Lake and Round Valley evaluation, Horne reports wanted.

1963 Nov. 25


AFSC Community Relations Round-Up, Pendle Hill, day of funeral of JFK, “involvement and participation essential to community development,” wider community scope, term ‘community’ is difficult to define, employment; notes about Dartmouth-1962-1963, historical interrelation of science and engineering, economic graphics management, list of numbers with possible chapter titles (?) not sure, with heading Trinity; Whittier-drawing and description of geometry, graphics, list of classes (?), descriptions of Math 13, Math 14, Math 21, and other math classes, algebra, calculus, statistics.

1963 Dec. 31


Description of engineering and physics classes.

1964 Jan. 3


Engineering Program Commission, requirement of classes; Friends and Indians meeting, talk about Penn Treaty, list of other names and divisions of the Council, topics, concerns of Friends.

1964 Jan. 9


Indian Committee, Lenore Haines member? Walt Taylor, 1964 Crisis for Senecas, Cornplanter-water and land.

1964 Jan. 15


IRA and Bobltaines, who takes care of the Cornplanter cemetery now? Less planning by outsiders, focus on helping the individual, “recognition of past ignorance and arrogance on our part,” solitary confinement, being parents in our management of schools, educating the teachers, vocational emphasis needed.

1964 Jan. 16


Schaff Building, Council on Indian Affairs, subcommittee on Education, list of names, annual focus in 1964-health, focus in 1965 is education, poverty, community development, Health Education Employment, avoiding mental troubles, summer programs, social issues vs. local politics, Indian Leadership and Community Development, school drop out rate.

1964 Jan. 20


Council on Indian Affairs, YWCA, list of names, national attention given to Indian education, special problems in school and community life, community is the center of interest, unemployment, housing, overcoming poverty, language is a big problem.

1964 Jan. 21


Council on Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior building, list of names, Youth Employment Act, tribal government to get sponsored for work project thru BIA, tribal government would work through state, redevelopment, public housing, unemployment, budgeting planning, resolving credit fund, BLM in Alaska-program for employment of Indians-on basis of competence, claims to land, reliance on BLM, Indian health program, NIYC-National Indian Youth Council, list of names.

1964 Jan. 25


Cold Spring Longhouse, list of names.

1964 Jan. 26


Bowl game, description of game with beans, list of names, Ernie and Sally Crow, rehabilitation costs, costs of other programs.

1964 Jan. 28


Fellowship House, intercultural relatives-Golden Rule, missionary work, “teachers transmit heritage, but also have commitment to the truth, to knowledge, to information,” teaching English to Indians.

1964 Jan. 29


WRCV, town meeting of the Sir, “Is US government fulfilling to obligations to Indians?” treaties, land, “Obligations to ourselves and our principles, a nation with underprivileged or discriminated against, unhealthy, ignorant,” “Make the world safe for diversity;” sketch and explanation of accident that he was in; more names, termination of culture, helping Indians become civilized.

1964 Feb. 23


List of names and phone numbers, 300-year celebration in New Jersey.

1964 March 4


IRA, TBH statement for March 6 contribution to Gurtcya Gwitchin (?) Ginkhye, employment assistance report, sketch of percents given to each division-ARA, MDTA, OVR, RCE, AVT, DE; vocational teaching.

1964 March 5


List of names, Phillip S. Hughes, Assistant Director for Legislative Reference, Bureau of the Budget, Executive Office of the President, list of costs, Alaska State Housing Authority report.

1964 March 9


Report by B. Frank Herntzleman, from Juneau, AK, Governor of Alaska, opposed to statehood and Rampart, too expensive, not enough information, Teen Age Club, promotes industry, forestry, iron ore power.

1964 March 10


TBH Office, list of names, Peace Corps, COR-Contract Oversees Representative? Volunteers for choice of area and type of activity.

1964 March 12


Plula (?) Yearly meeting-Indian Commission.

1964 March 21


Chester Co. Historical Society, quotes about rewards for work, the white man ‘saving’ the Native; Oneida reference, Presbyterians from Princeton,  ‘saving the dark-skinned people,’ telling the missionaries to leave, American Philosophical Society.

1964 March 24


Department of the Interior, classification of Rampart Wildlife Management Institute, TBH, Wilderness Society; $500 million is not enough to buy the Yukon land, “This land is dear to us,” money doesn’t mean anything, “US does not own the land, but right to rule,” homesteaders, economic freeze, hunting, future economic welfare.

1964 May 4

New York City, NY

AAIA, list of names, Resolution to Kinzua and BR1794, legal advice and technical assistance upon request, community development request, education, scholarships; mission schools, limited adult education, holding onto traditions, can’t understand intruders, many languages, lack management skills, preventable diseases, building roads, new schools, health center.

No date.


List of needs for Seneca, slides, projector, screen, water drum, rattle, stove, bench, Longhouse w/ scale, The Code of Handsome Lake.

No date.


Last page, list of names, National Indian Council of Canada.


Notebook #[14]: May-September 1964: Hopi, American Indian Capitol Conference on Poverty (May 9-12), Indian Rights Assoc. (May 12), BIA Superintendents Conference, Sante Fe (June 16-18), ASEE Orono, Miane (June 22-24), NFIW Estes Park Cole (July 2-7), Travels of August and September, Utes, California, Papago, Hopi, Pueblos, Navajo, etc., Hatchongva and Banyacya, Russ Stetler Hearing (May 27).

Date (s)



1964 May 9


American Indian Capitol Conference on Poverty, workshop on education, public relations, press relations, list of names, levels of education, 1928 Merriam Report-health, sanitation, housing, income, drop-outs, quality vs. quantity, education is cultural, broad, not just skills, enrollment, parental involvement, need motivation, balance between being Indian and American, lack of facilities, child care centers wanted, numbers of kids in and not in school, communication in this society, “get rid of negative ideas about the government,” community centers, “education for kids with inadequate food, housing, etc.,” volunteers, remedial programs needed, need for standards, better teachers, improving parent-teacher-child relations, negative communication.

1964 May 10


Poverty problem-economic and cultural, custody program, military technology, “Iroquois concepts of government is advance of Europe,” respect of land rights, citizenship.

1964 May 11


Education Workshop, list of names and their defense for certain age group programs in schools, guidance and counseling, other solutions to improved education, maintaining tribal traditions, “What is objective of progress?” realistic teaching, influence of the churches; definition of Alaskan, poverty, aboriginal rights, land won’t solve the problem, motivation, preparing for a wage economy, “subsistence economy-vitally important to Alaskan Natives,” lack of education limits employment; Mrs. Stella Martin-Tlingint, from Juneau, “adjustment problems of Natives in Alaska,” Alaska Native Sisterhood-fighting against discrimination, for citizenship, education, social and economic condition of Natives, housing, sanitation and food, organized labor union of fish cannery workers, rate of change is terrifying, adult education, develop human resources; William Hensly comments about family life; Robert Bennett-comments about employment and education.

1964 May 25


At the Church of Ageless Wisdom, training of the Hopi, land rights being taken away, what happens when you destroy the way of life for the Hopi, thinking of the children and of the future, ownership of the land vs. being a part of the land, sketch of drum, group of three men sing and drum, “trying to become leaders without knowing sacred teachings,” sketch of a symbolic sign not to follow, sketch of symbols on a shield, having no control/influence on the young ones, concept of a new world, does not want destruction, being faithful to Hopi religion, culture in crisis, Frank Waters revealing Hopi ways.

1964 May 26


Meeting house, report of meetings with Navajo and United Paiutes, learning ancient, secret knowledge, against forced religion, reservations, oil companies coming in, costs of all improvements and past administration, loss of traditions, learning respect of one’s religion, “Great wisdom in Hopi philosophy, for all people,” suffering from white teachings, sketch of picture on rock east of Old Oraibi,” sketch of male and female sign, language, “Nothing dead, everything alive. Nothing obscene, all part of nature,” “Bring all people into understanding, so they won’t be destroyed,” be faithful, never doubt, “Don’t try to change other peoples religion, but respect them.”

1964 May 27


Phila Public School Boarding Hearing, Russ Stetler, taking interest in politics, scholarships, arguing about issues; AFSC Indian program, list of names and occupations or roles in program.

1964 June 3


KCA-oldest one who visited us, “desire to rescind abolition of constitution.”

1964 June 14

Santa Fe, NM

BIA Superintendent’s Conference, assignments of members to other areas, some names and phone numbers, took photos of Charles Romero, Louis Castellano, Jerry Mirabel.

1964 June 15

Taos, NM

Paul Bornal, “What is happening for Taos Re claims Schifter and Frank Karlson?” “What is happening about Taos claims?”

1964 June 16


Andy Turkat had been elected with about one-third of the votes, revolution of Navajos, unemployment, need for education for skills, management, “contribution of Udall-conservation and awareness of resources,” the American opportunity, developing leadership, economic opportunity.

1964 June 17

Santa Fe, NM

Upgrading community services, vocational work, secondary education, “guiding principles of BIA boarding schools,” public schools, federal money, cultural deprivation, national awareness of cultural deprivation, getting kids to want an education, hospitals, “male is the weaker sex, more hospital admissions,” sewage, economic development, “need to establish cooperatives or corporations to keep land Indian, tribal or not,” “little of tribal budget is for investment, for peoples future economy,” BIA to have caretakers instead of developers; Alaskan Indian Truths to Wallace Craig-BIA Anchorage, “force account is firm BIA policy,” employment, “Businessmen don’t understand importance of ceremonies,” developing good work habits, “Freedom in this country includes the freedom to make mistakes.”

1964 June 18

Santa Fe, NM

Frank Brady-running summer educational program, awards for claim cases, tribal government expenses, went to International Folk Art Museum, Navajo Ceremonial Fine Arts Museum; Public Housing Administration, “human problems are greater than the technical one,” low income rentals, welfare recipients, equity credit for value of land for work, Laguna rental plan, UNM Peace Corps Training Center, “Don’t destroy their moral fiber by serving their needs without their understanding. They are needy people, not need Indians;” community poor in spirit and economy, demoralized, housing, participation in programs, “trust responsibility, tribal factions, thwart participation,” Force Account work on PHA project, MDTA program training, war against poverty, “Destiny of man united with nature,” opportunities on the reservation, “break down the isolation of reservations,” “In diversity there is strength.”

1964 June 19

New Mexico

Drove from Santa Fe to Albuquerque to Laguna, cited to Business Week, National Observer, Wall Street Journal, list of names and departments, list of expenses.

1964 June 22


ASEE, drove to Orono, Maine; International Engineering Education, names, experience with engineering education, “seeking out and satisfying opportunities profitably,” value added to education, goals of an education in engineering; Professor AS Hall, Purdue-Introduction to Engineering Design, sketch of years of education.

1964 June 24


ASEE, Stanford Energy Conversion, MHD Thermionics, efficiency of program, specialized in research, rising level of education in industry, bringing practical commercial aspects to students, economics.

1964 June 28


Trip west to Estes Park, list of mileage.

1964 June 29


Arrive at Scattergood School.

1964 June 30


Drove on road west of Arapahoe, NE.

1964 July 1

Greeley, Colo.

Car checkup, list of mileage.

1964 July 2

Ft. Collins, Colo.

Colorado State University, list of names, engineering design.

1964 July 3


A5 education, prepare students for life in the US without damage to Indian tradition and identity, “Conflict helps preserve old culture,” “Indians want freedom and ability and responsibility to decide what to do with their own lives,” B5 legislation, housing self-help, scholarships, ‘war on poverty,’ local leadership and local participation, lack of communication, getting good teachers to stay, tribal business management.

1964 July 4


Role of churches, scholarships, vocational training that is meaningful, college dropouts, B5 Legislation session, listening and understanding, teaching, learning Indian philosophy; “Indian and Alaskan Native Health deprivation due to geographical and cultural isolation,” pre and post natal care needed, dental and public health nurse assistants.

1964 July 6


Colin Williams, “reservation life is no good,” religion, education, BIA’s role, “Ask not what the Sioux can do for you, but what you can do for the Sioux,” influence of motivation, teaching of Indian history, aspects of culture, schools by missionaries, expense.

1964 July 7


Reports of interest groups, communicating the gospel, interpersonal relations, “dialogue rather than preaching,” the church in the community, health, audio-visual and mass media, legislation, “reservation system has caused Indian to lose his freedom,” moving into the non-Indian world, “Education is key to open up economic opportunities, development of resources, to obtain rights,” final comments about the Santa Fe Friends meeting, the NFIW conference.

1964 July 8

Boulder, Colo.

Workshop about education, “education is where the cultures meet,” “transition from folk to urban culture,” “Emphasis on optimization techniques;” Denver radio station news release from Roe Lewis, “great new day has dawned when Indians are becoming full fledged citizens, release from the bondage of wardship and the restrictions of reservation life. He denies his heritage, only when he ceases to be Indian will he have a worthwhile future,” spent the night on Loveland pass.

1964 July 9


Stayed at the Snake River campground, went to Dillon, Ft. Duchesne-excavations at Caldwell Farm Lapoint, went to elementary school and the youthcamp north of Neola.

1964 July 11


Stayed at Roosevelt Frontier Hotel; Rev. Capt. William Roberts-history of the Ute Partition Act.

1964 July 12


Drove to Pyramid Lake.

1964 July 13


Mrs. Price at Episcopal Mission-“Indians not ready for white competition.”

1964 July 14


Drive thru Yosemite and Sequoiah tree.

1964 July 15


Visit with Olga McAllister, Porterville State Hospital, Leta Garfield, Winifred Bambauer, want education to help her people, Tom Bahti-president of Assoc. on Papago Affairs, Ruth Bronson-Gila Band Indians and flooding of their homes by overflow from reclamation dam.

1964 July 22


Homer Jenkins replacing St. Clair at Sells, drum by Jim Herrera, postmaster at Cochiti, Ft. McDowell, Andrew Johnson-survey marker, Gritzner-Arizona Commission on Indian Affairs, Prof. Lucille Kaufman-address and phone, housing development, planning, Salt River Agency.

1964 July 24


US Bureau of Reclamation film “Operation Glen Canyon,” water supply conflicts.

1964 July 25

New Mexico

Drove to Shongapovi to see the Home Dance, it is the last dance of the katchinas before returning to their home in the San Francisco mountains, description of dancers, brief visit at Window Rock, Gallup Community Center-budget problems, drunks.

1964 July 26


Stopped at Cochiti, bought a drum form Lorenzo Cordero(made by him also), bought necklaces in Santa Fe.

1964 July 27


John and Grace Collier, A Barrie Pittock, National Center for Atmospheric Research (Boulder, Colo.) visit to Mr. and Mrs. Charles Collier; Nambe-talked with governor, Marcos Johnson about housing project, spent night at guest house at the Institute of American Indian Art, problem of overpopulation-off reservation.

1964 July 29


Anadarko, BIA school funds for ages 6-20, OK BIA Indian social problem, mobilize local resources, tribal estates.

1964 Aug. 30


List of mileage, stayed in motel in Burlington, Colo., car info.

1964 Sept. 2

Colo. to NM

Left Colorado Springs, Colo., for Taos, NM.

1964 Sept. 3


List of names, Joe Lopez-governor, survey has been done, other people met, Albuquerque-Woodrow Tiger-wants Indian Truth and Haverford Catalog, Housing and Home Finance Agency, PHA water and electricity; at Laguna-Robert Dailey, El Morro Inscription Rock, Zuni, Ericacho on certificate of inspection of wiring.

1964 Sept. 5


Went out to Hawikuh ruins, took picture of gift of the governor-Italian stonemasons working on the Black Rock Dam in 1904, Anthony Edaaki, went to Zuni fair, drove to Gallup to aluminum factory.

1964 Sept. 6

Window Rock, AZ

Comments about an article from the Navajo Times that the CINVA-RAM machine that he sold to Howard McKinley, building materials are scarce in many parts of the reservation; went to Steamboat Rock, then drove back to Chinle, then drove to Rock Point and Mexican Water, descriptions of weather, talked to ‘Chief’ Goodluck, Friends school in Rough Rock is closed “due to lack of personnel,” kids go to boarding school.

1964 Sept. 7


Drove to Mesa Verde, then went to Durango, drove thru Ouray, Montrose, Salida, Canon City, Colorado Springs.

1964 Sept. 8


Navajo Trading Day, met Glenn Gray, met Paul Kutsche, went to Air Force Academy-list of classes, engineering graphics, Indian education, flew from Denver to Chicago, quote of book Legends of the Longhouse.

1964 Sept. 19


Letchworth State Park, 6 Nations Day.

1964 no date


Summary of events of the summer of 1964, places visited.

1964 Sept. 15


Council on Indian Affairs, BIA study on education, list of names.

1964 Sept 23


Planning for Conference on Indian Education, Florence Albert-went to Haskell, not enough preparation for college, pride, special education, administration, public service, Indian involvement on school board, NIYC trying to retain Indian culture, need for more research, objections to conferences, NIYC is to publish papers on education.

1964 Oct. 3


Education Conference Subcommittee, Council on Indian Affairs, finding out wants of Indians, survey, names and associations or appointments.

No date


List of names and places.

No date


Send Mr. and Mrs. R. L. McElhoney photo, Mrs. Nancy Phillips-American Indian Service Committee, Area Redevelopment Administration, U. S. Dept. of Commerce, list of other departments.

With date 1964 May 25


Tawangyawma, list of names(two pages).

This list was produced by Center of Southwest Studies student archival assistant Debra Lehl, September-December 2001.  Web mastering by Todd Ellison, C. A., December,  2001.  Last revised and updated 2006 by Ellison.

© 2001 by Fort Lewis College Foundation, Center of Southwest Studies account

Doing your own research: This description of a portion of the collections at the Fort Lewis College Center of Southwest Studies is provided to inform interested parties about the nature and depth of the repository's collections.  It cannot serve as a substitute for a visit to the repository for those with substantial research interests in the collections. 

This collection is located at the Center of Southwest Studies on the campus of Fort Lewis College.  Researchers wanting more information about using this material at the Delaney Southwest Research Library at the Center may email the archivist at archives@fortlewis.edu or click here to use our E-mail Reference Request Form (or phone the archivist at 970/247-7126).  The Center does not have a budget for outgoing long-distance phone calls to answer reference requests, so please email if you wish to receive a response from the Center.  To request reproductions/copies, click here for instructions.


Page last modified: November 02, 2006